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the study of the form, structure and location of bodily parts

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Biology

286 Terms

1

the study of the form, structure and location of bodily parts

anatomy

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2

the study of the function of bodily parts and processes involved them

physiology

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3

surrounds the heart

pericardium

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4

carbon dioxide, oxygen and hydrogen

carbon dioxide, oxygen and hydrogen

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5

H20, CO2 and O2

molecules

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6

organic compounds carbon based big molecules

macromolecules

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7

examples of macromolecules

carbohydrates, proteins, dna

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8

drains urine from mesonephric kidney prior to its regression ; then becomes ducts and organs associated with testis; developing under influence of testosterone

mesonephric duct

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9

involutes into intermediate mesoderm; open-ended and becoming ducts and organs associated with ovary

paramesonephric duct

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10

nucleus, ribosome, mitochondria,

organelles

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11

protein factory

ribosomes

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12

rbc, neuron, macrophages

cells

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13

epidermis, cerebral cortex, mucosa

tissues

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14

stomach, heart, thymus,

organs

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15

Gland in the thoracic cavity above the heart where T lymphocytes mature.

thymus

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16

respiratory, endocrine, cardiovascular

organ systems

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17

is the smallest independently functioning unit of a living organism

cell

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18

A human cell typically consists of flexible membranes that enclose cytoplasm, a water-based cellular fluid together with a variety of tiny functioning units

organelles

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19

is a group of many similar cells (though sometimes composed of a few related types) that work together to perform a specific function. An organ is an anatomically distinct structure of the body composed of two or more tissue types. Each organ performs one or more specific physiological functions.

tissue

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20

is a group of organs that work together to perform major functions or meet physiological needs of the body.

organ system

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21

encloses internal body structures site of many sensory receptors

integumentary system

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22

supports the body enables movement with muscular system

skeletal system

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23

enables movement with skeletal system helps maintain body temperature

muscular system

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24

detects and processes sensory information activates bodily responses

nervous system

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25

secretes hormones regulates bodily processes

endocrine system

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26

delivers oxygen and nutrients to tissues equalizes temperature in the body

cardiovascular system

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27

returns fluid to blood defends against pathogens

lymphatic system

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28

removes carbon dioxide from the body delivers oxygen to blood

respiratory system

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29

processes food for use by the body removes wastes from undigested food

digestive system

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30

controls water balance in the body removes wastes from blood and excretes them

urinary system

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31

produces sex hormones and gametes delivers gametes to female

male reproductive system

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32

produces sex hormones and gametes supports embryo/ fetus until birth produces milk for infant

female reproductive system

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33

is the highest level of organization. is a living being that has a cellular structure and that can independently perform all physiologic functions necessary for life.

organism

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34

is the process whereby smaller, simpler molecules are combined into larger, more complex substances. Your body can assemble, by utilizing energy, the complex chemicals it needs by combining small molecules derived from the foods you eat

Anabolism

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35

is the process by which larger more complex substances are broken down into smaller simpler molecules. Catabolism releases energy. The complex molecules found in foods are broken down so the body can use their parts to assemble the structures and substances needed for life.

Catabolism

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36

is the sum of all anabolic and catabolic reactions that take place in the body

Metabolism

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37

Every cell in your body makes use of a chemical compound, ___ to store and release energy. The cell stores energy in the synthesis (anabolism) of ATP, then moves the ATP molecules to the location where energy is needed to fuel cellular activities. Then the ATP is broken down (catabolism) and a controlled amount of energy is released, which is used by the cell to perform a particular job.

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

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38

is the ability of an organism to adjust to changes in its internal and external environments. An example of responsiveness to external stimuli could include moving toward sources of food and water and away from perceived dangers. Changes in an organism's internal environment, such as increased body temperature, can cause the responses of sweating and the dilation of blood vessels in the skin in order to decrease body temperature, as shown by the runners in Figure 2.

Responsiveness

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39

is all of the changes the body goes through in life. Development includes the process of differentiation, in which unspecialized cells become specialized in structure and function to perform certain tasks in the body. Development also includes the processes of growth and repair, both of which involve cell differentiation.

Development

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40

is the increase in body size. Humans, like all multicellular organisms, grow by increasing the number of existing cells, increasing the amount of non-cellular material around cells (such as mineral deposits in bone), and, within very narrow limits, increasing the size of existing cells.

Growth

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41

is the formation of a new organism from parent organisms. In humans, reproduction is carried out by the male and female reproductive systems. Because death will come to all complex organisms, without reproduction, the line of organisms would end.

Reproduction

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42

process by which unspecialized cells become specialized in structure and function

differentiation

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43

process by which worn-out cells are replaced

renewal

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44

process by which new organisms are generated

reproduction

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45

chemical obtained from foods and beverages that is critical to human survival

nutrient

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46

force exerted by a substance in contact with another substance

pressure

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47

compares values to their normal range; deviations cause the activation of an effector

control center

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48

organ that can cause a change in a value

effector

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49

homeostatic mechanism that tends to stabilize an upset in the body's physiological condition by preventing an excessive response to a stimulus, typically as the stimulus is removed

negative feedback

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50

range of values around the set point that do not cause a reaction by the control center

normal range

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51

mechanism that intensifies a change in the body's physiological condition in response to a stimulus

positive feedback

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52

(also, receptor) reports a monitored physiological value to the control center

sensor

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53

ideal value for a physiological parameter; the level or small range within which a physiological parameter such as blood pressure is stable and optimally healthful, that is, within its parameters of homeostasis

set point

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54

division of the anterior (ventral) cavity that houses the abdominal and pelvic viscera

abdominopelvic cavity

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55

standard reference position used for describing locations and directions on the human body

anatomical position

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56

describes the front or direction toward the front of the body; also referred to as ventral

anterior

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57

larger body cavity located anterior to the posterior (dorsal) body cavity; includes the serous membrane-lined pleural cavities for the lungs, pericardial cavity for the heart, and peritoneal cavity for the abdominal and pelvic organs; also referred to as ventral cavity

anterior cavity

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58

describes a position below or lower than another part of the body proper; near or toward the tail (in humans, the coccyx, or lowest part of the spinal column); also referred to as inferior

caudal

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59

describes a position above or higher than another part of the body proper; also referred to as superior

cranial

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60

division of the posterior (dorsal) cavity that houses the brain

cranial cavity

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61

describes a position farther from the surface of the body

deep

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62

describes a position farther from the point of attachment or the trunk of the body

distal

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63

describes the back or direction toward the back of the body; also referred to as posterior

dorsal

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64

posterior body cavity that houses the brain and spinal cord; also referred to the posterior body cavity

dorsal cavity

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65

two-dimensional, vertical plane that divides the body or organ into anterior and posterior portions

frontal plane

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66

describes a position below or lower than another part of the body proper; near or toward the tail (in humans, the coccyx, or lowest part of the spinal column); also referred to as caudal

inferior

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67

describes the side or direction toward the side of the body

lateral

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68

describes the middle or direction toward the middle of the body

medial

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69

sac that encloses the heart

pericardium

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70

serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers the organs found there

peritoneum

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71

imaginary two-dimensional surface that passes through the body

plane

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72

serous membrane that lines the pleural cavity and covers the lungs

pleura

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73

describes the back or direction toward the back of the body; also referred to as dorsal

posterior

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74

posterior body cavity that houses the brain and spinal cord; also referred to as dorsal cavity

posterior cavity

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75

face down

prone

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76

describes a position nearer to the point of attachment or the trunk of the body

proximal

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77

two-dimensional, vertical plane that divides the body or organ into right and left sides

sagittal plane

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78

in anatomy, a single flat surface of a three-dimensional structure that has been cut through

section

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79

membrane that covers organs and reduces friction; also referred to as serosa

serous membrane

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80

membrane that covers organs and reduces friction; also referred to as serous membrane

serosa

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81

division of the dorsal cavity that houses the spinal cord; also referred to as vertebral cavity

spinal cavity

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82

describes a position nearer to the surface of the body

superficial

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83

describes a position above or higher than another part of the body proper; also referred to as cranial

superior

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84

face up

supine

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85

division of the anterior (ventral) cavity that houses the heart, lungs, esophagus, and trachea

thoracic cavity

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86

two-dimensional, horizontal plane that divides the body or organ into superior and inferior portions

transverse plane

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87

describes the front or direction toward the front of the body; also referred to as anterior

ventral

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88

larger body cavity located anterior to the posterior (dorsal) body cavity; includes the serous membrane-lined pleural cavities for the lungs, pericardial cavity for the heart, and peritoneal cavity for the abdominal and pelvic organs; also referred to as anterior body cavity

ventral cavity

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89

medical imaging technique in which a computer-enhanced cross-sectional X-ray image is obtained

computed tomography (CT)

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90

medical imaging technique in which a device generates a magnetic field to obtain detailed sectional images of the internal structures of the body

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

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91

medical imaging technique in which radiopharmaceuticals are traced to reveal metabolic and physiological functions in tissues

positron emission tomography (PET)

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92

application of ultrasonic waves to visualize subcutaneous body structures such as tendons and organs

ultrasonography

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93

form of high energy electromagnetic radiation with a short wavelength capable of penetrating solids and ionizing gases; used in medicine as a diagnostic aid to visualize body structures such as bones

X-ray

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94

smallest unit of an element that retains the unique properties of that element

atom

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95

number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

atomic number

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96

substance composed of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds

compound

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97

subatomic particle having a negative charge and nearly no mass; found orbiting the atom's nucleus

electron

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98

area of space a given distance from an atom's nucleus in which electrons are grouped

electron shell

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99

substance that cannot be created or broken down by ordinary chemical means

element

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100

one of the variations of an element in which the number of neutrons differ from each other

isotope

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