sociology exam 2

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Ferdinand Tӧnnies used the term __________ for a large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group and little consensus on values.

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1

Ferdinand Tӧnnies used the term __________ for a large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group and little consensus on values.

Gesellschaft

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2

​When Darlene takes a seat at the local diner, the server approaches the table and says, "Hi, I'm Matt. I'll be taking care of you today." This is an example of __________.

a social script

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3

_________ occurs when the expectations associated with a role are unclear.

​Role ambiguity

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4

Being homeless, having immigrant status, wearing a prison uniform, and having a visible physical disability are all examples of __________.

​stigmas

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5

​__________ emphasize the role of social institutions in accomplishing essential tasks for society.

​Functionalists

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6

Carlos is a freshman at the local college. As a student, he is feeling pressure. He wants to party like the rest of his fraternity brothers, but at the same time, he wants to maintain his 4.0 grade point average. Sociologists would say that Carlos is experiencing _________.

role strain

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7

Which of these is the best example of a secondary group?

​a sociology class

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8

Mikayla is told repeatedly that she is not a very good athlete. Eventually, she comes to believe it, puts in little effort in gym class, and receives a poor grade. This scenario is an illustration of __________.

​a self-fulfilling prophecy

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9

​__________ are based on technology that mechanizes production. New technologies, such as cars, computers, electric lights, stereos, and cell phones, are products of these societies.

.

​Industrial societies

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10

Media stories that focus on the lack of education or work history among the homeless and not on structural factors such as economic recession or the lack of affordable housing fail to account for the __________ of the situation.

.

​macro view

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11

Which of these questions best describes the interests of ethnomethodologists?

​How do we know how to interact in a given situation?

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12

As a theorist, Emile Durkheim was most interest in the question:____________________.

What holds societies together?

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13

The sociological term for any physical or social attribute or sign that devalues a person's social identity and disqualifies that person from full social acceptance is __________.

stigma

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14

​From the __________ perspective, social institutions are not organized for the common good of everyone.

conflict

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15

The family, religion, education, the economy, the government (politics), mass media, sports, science and medicine, and the military are all examples of __________.

​social institutions

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16

​__________ theorists do not believe that social institutions work for the common good of everyone in society. They emphasize that social institutions are most likely to meet the needs of those with the greatest amount of power in a society.

Conflict

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17

All jobs place some burden on our feelings; however, the term emotional labor refers only to jobs that___________________________

require personal contact with the public or promote a particular state of mind

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18

​__________ theorists emphasize that social structure is essential because it creates order and predictability in a society.

​Functionalist

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19

What do most men consider to be their master status?

occupation

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20

Occupation is an example of a(n) _______ status.

Achieved

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21

Teacher, student, professional athlete, rock musician, and homeless person are all examples of __________.

​statuses

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22

​It is not always clear when the provider-dependent aspect of the parent-child relationship ends. Should it end at age 18 or 21? When a person is no longer in school? This is an example of __________.

​role ambiguity

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23

Some symbolic interaction theorists believe that there is very little shared reality beyond that which is socially created. They refer to this as the __________, which is the process by which our perception of reality is largely shaped by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience.

social construction of reality

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24

__________ theorists maintain that in capitalistic societies, where a few people control the labor of many, the social structure reflects a system of relationships of domination and subordination.

Conflict

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25

Sociologists define a(n) __________ as a larger, more specialized group in which members engage in more impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of time.

​secondary group

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26

A(n) __________ status is a social position a person assumes voluntarily as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effort.

​achieved

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27

​__________ theorists do not believe that social institutions work for the common good of everyone in society. They emphasize that social institutions are most likely to meet the needs of those with the greatest amount of power in a society.

Conflict

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28

Which of these is not considered to be a social institution?

​travel

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29

The sociological term for the process by which people act toward and respond to other people, and which is considered the foundation for all relationships and groups in society, is __________.

​social interaction

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30

Ferdinand Tӧnnies used the term __________ for traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability.

Gemeinschaft

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31

​Sociologist Erving Goffman noted that people consciously participate in __________, a face-saving technique in which one role player ignores the flaws in another's performance to avoid embarrassment for everyone involved.

.

​studied nonobservance

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32

​The concept of __________ refers to the social cohesion found in industrial societies, in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence.

​organic solidarity

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33

All of these statements about social structure are true, except______________________.

.

​it is not essential for individual well-being

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34

The sociological term for any physical or social attribute or sign that devalues a person's social identity and disqualifies that person from full social acceptance is __________.

​stigma

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35

A __________ is a set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status.

role

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36

​Most students behave differently in the classroom than they do in their own room or with friends. For most students, the classroom would be considered __________.

front stage

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37

Charles has a final exam in the evening at a time when he is supposed to be working. That same evening, Stephanie (his girlfriend) wants him to take her to a movie. To top it off, his mother calls, asking him to fly home because his father is going to have emergency surgery. Sociologists would say that Charles is very likely experiencing __________.

role conflict

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38

The expectations for being a college student include attending class, completing assignments, and being involved in campus activities. These expectations are an example of a __________.

role

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39

Amber is a first grade teacher, a daughter, a wife, a mother, a Presbyterian, a soccer coach, and a Kansas resident. Taken together, all of these socially defined positions constitute her __________.

status set

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40

__________ refers to the conscious fostering of the impression of a lack of commitment or attachment to a particular role. It is clear one merely goes through the motions of role performance.

​Role distancing

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41

The perspective developed by Erving Goffman that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation is called __________.

dramaturgical analysis

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42

__________ refers to the state of being part insider and part outsider in the social structure, such as that of immigrants who simultaneously share the life and traditions of two distinct groups.

​Social marginality

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43

A former business manager is between jobs and takes a job at a local retail store in order to make ends meet. In that position, she frequently talks about her previous work and her plans for the future. She doesn't want people to view her as a "clerk." Her behavior is an example of __________.

​role distancing

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44

​Durkheim used the term __________ to refer to the social cohesion of preindustrial societies, in which there is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds.

​mechanical solidarity

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45

__________ include our family, close friends, and school- or work-related peer groups.

Primary group

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46

A __________ is a highly structured group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals.

​formal organization

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47

Which of these is not generally considered a component of the social structure?

values and beliefs

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48

The sociological term for a set of social relationships that link one individual to others is __________

social network

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49

​__________ occurs when people disengage from social roles that have been central to their self-identity.

Role exit

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50

Sociologist Erving Goffman's term __________ refers to the ways in which an individual shows awareness that another is present without making this person the object of particular attention.

civil inattention

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51

​A __________ is a socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties, and it exists independently of the specific people occupying the position.

status

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52

At the __________, the social structure of a society has several essential elements: social institutions, groups, statuses, roles, and norms.

​macrolevel

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53

Conflict and functionalist theorists are in agreement that______________________.

social institutions are originally organized to meet basic needs within society

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54

A(n) __________ status is a social position conferred at birth or received involuntarily later in life, based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control, such as race/ethnicity, age, and gender.

ascribed

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55

​When __________ occurs, we may feel pulled in different directions. We may prioritize our roles and first complete the one we consider to be most important. Or we may compartmentalize our lives and "insulate" our various roles.

​Role conflict

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56

​Which of these statements about social networks is false?

​Social networks work equally well for people of all social classes.

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57

The text uses the expression "bureaucracy's other face" to refer to __________.​

the informal activities within a bureaucracy

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58

We voluntarily join __________ organizations when they can provide us with a material reward we seek.​

utilitarian

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59

A teacher gives students ideas for an assignment, but encourages them to be creative and pick their own subject and format. The teacher is using a(n) _________ leadership style.​

laissez-faire

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60

The leader of a work group has proposed a solution to a problem that some group members believe will have negative results. Instead of discussing their concerns, they do not want to challenge the leader's authority. The result is an unwise decision. The group has experienced __________.​

groupthink

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61

Which of these is not likely to constitute a reference group for a person who strongly believes in the value of human rights and equal opportunity?

​Ku Klux Klan

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62

Two best friends, married couples, and domestic partnerships are each an example of a(n) __________.

dyad

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63

From a __________ perspective, if groups exist to meet the instrumental and expressive needs of their members, then leaders are responsible for helping the group meet those needs.

​functionalist

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64

Which of these is an example of a coalition?

teachers in a school district who work together to demand better wages

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65

Social psychologist __________ examined group decision making among political experts and found that major blunders in U.S. history may be attributed to pressure toward group conformity.

Irving Janis

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66

_________ leadership is most appropriate when the group is dealing with emotional issues, and when harmony, solidarity, and high morale are needed.​

Expressive

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67

A(n) __________ is a collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common.

aggregate

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68

A college president need not be effective in designing promotional brochures. A corporate executive need not be able to program the department's computer system. These examples illustrate __________ in a bureaucratic organization.​

division of labor

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69

__________ needs are met by opportunities of self-expression and support from family, friends, and peers.​

Expressive

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70

Which type of theorist is most likely to note the scripted nature of interaction in contemporary society (for example between employees and customers in a fast-food restaurant)?

postmodern theorists

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71

Which of these sociologists applied ideal type analysis and borrowed from the field of economics to study bureaucracies?

Max Weber

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72

A(n) __________ is an organizational model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules and procedures, and impersonality in personal matters.​

bureaucracy

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73

The research conducted by Stanley Milgram and his colleagues provides evidence that obedience to authority __________.​

​may be more common than most people would like to believe

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74

In regard to Stanley Milgram's study, the text points out that __________.​

this research raises some questions concerning research ethics

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75

In which of these types of groups is the participation of all members crucial to the survival of the group?​

dyad

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76

Several employees at a fast-food restaurant call in sick at the last minute. The manager tries to fill in but doesn't know how to run the drive-through intercom or broiler. Applying the terms for problems that are frequent within bureaucracy, this is an example of __________.

trained incapacity

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77

After conducting his research, Solomon Asch concluded that __________.

the degree of social cohesion felt by participants is very important regarding how individuals respond to group pressure

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78

Members of a country club, sorority or fraternity, or even a group of friends share values and beliefs and are aware of those whom they believe are like them. Sociologists term this awareness __________. ​

consciousness of kind

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79

The bureaucratic tendency toward rule by the few is termed __________.​

oligarchy

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80

Which of these sociologists first suggested that small groups have interaction patterns that do not exist in larger groups?​

Georg Simmel

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81

The "grapevine" spreads information (with varying degrees of accuracy) much faster than do official channels of communication, which tend to be slow and unresponsive. Within a bureaucracy, the "grapevine" is an example of __________.​

informal structure

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82

​A(n) __________ is an alliance created in an attempt to reach a shared objective or goal.​

​coalition

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83

In 2010, concern about cost overruns and staying on schedule kept executives of BP, Halliburton, and Transocean from sharing information and concerns with each other. The result was a shared assumption of safety that ultimately resulted in the explosion of a BP oil rig and an unprecedented environmental disaster. The failure to express concerns and confront potential risk is an example of __________.

groupthink

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84

Cody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan's Slaves. Cody feels very antagonistic toward the Bloods and Satan's Slaves. For Cody, these two rival gangs would be considered __________.​

outgroups

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85

A(n) __________ is a collection of two or more people who interact frequently with one another, share a sense of belonging, and have a feeling of interdependence.​

social group

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86

__________ needs cannot always be met by one person, so being in a group enables one to complete tasks or fulfill a specific goal.

Instrumental

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87

Students walking to class, shoppers in a department store, and people lined up to buy tickets are examples of __________.

​aggregates

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88

​__________ suggest that groups involve unequal power relationships so that not all members of a group are not equally likely to have their needs met.

Conflict theorists

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89

A school district is run by a board of elected officials, which hires a superintendent, who in turn selects principals for its schools and other administrative staff. This is an example of the bureaucratic characteristic of __________.

hierarchy of authority

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90

Leaders using the __________ style of leadership may be praised for their expressive, supportive behavior toward group members, but they may also be blamed for being indecisive in times of crisis.

democratic

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91

A(n) __________ is a group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity.​

in-group

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92

Sociologist Charles H. Cooley used the term __________ to describe a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time.​

​primary group

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93

The sociologist who first defined the differences between primary and secondary groups is __________.​

​Charles H. Cooley

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94

Cooley coined the term __________ for a larger, more specialized group in which the members engage in impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of time.​

​secondary group

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95

Latisha is a member of a group working on a research project for a class assignment. Whenever the group meets, other members are easily sidetracked and Latisha is always trying to keep the group focused on the assignment. Latisha would be considered the __________ leader of the group.

instrumental

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96

Weber's term __________ refers to the process by which traditional informal and spontaneous methods of social organization are gradually replaced by efficiently administered formal rules and procedures.​

rationality

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97

A dozen inexperienced backpackers are preparing to settle in for the night when they realize that someone in the group is missing. The __________ style of leadership would be most effective in this situation.​

​authoritarian

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98

Which of these is an example of a utilitarian organization?

high school

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99

A(n) __________ is an abstract model that describes the recurring characteristics of some phenomenon (such as bureaucracy).​

​ideal type

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100

​Sociologists refer to the process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with the norms established by a society, subculture, or other group as __________.

conformity

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