AP Human - Midterm Vocab

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Choropleth Map

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252 Terms

1

Choropleth Map

Use various colors, shades of one color, or patterns to show the location and distribution of spatial data.

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2

Dot-Density Map

Each dot represents a specified quantity of a spatial characteristic.

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3

Graduated/Proportional Symbol Map

Use symbols of different sizes to indicate different amounts of a variable.

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4

Cartogram Map

The sizes of countries are shown according to a specific variable. Area is distorted to show a variable.

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5

Isoline Map

Use lines that connect points of equal value to depict variations in the data across space. Used for weather and elevation.

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6

Absolute Location

EXACT, PRECISEAddressLatitude & LongitudeRio de Janeiro is located at 23°S, 43°W.

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7

Relative Location

Relationship to another place"Next to my house""Between Werk & Lawrence"

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8

Absolute Distance

EXACT, PRECISEMiles/Kilometers/Feet"Oak Hills is 21.3 miles away from my house."Map Scale

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9

Relative Distance

Approximate measurement of the physical space between two places.

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10

Spatial Interaction

Connections, contacts, movement, and flow of things between places.

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11

Absolute Direction

EXACT, PRECISECardinal Directions: NSEW

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12

Relative Direction

Relative-relationships."Turn left at the Target, then right at the second stop-sign"

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13

Clustering

Close together

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14

Density

The # of something in a defined area.

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15

Dispersal/Distribution

Far apart

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16

Distribution

The way something is spread out over an area.

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17

Patterns & Spatial Associations

Indication that two (or more) phenomena may be related, associated, or correlated with one another.

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18

Map projections distort spatial relationships in

shape, area, distance and direction

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19

Map Projection

The process of a cartographer (map maker) showing the curved surface of the earth on a flat surface (map).

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20

Maps are _____ in what they portray

selective

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21

All maps are _______

selective and distort the earth

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22

Fieldwork/Field Observations

The act of an individual physically visiting a location or place and recording, firsthand, information there.

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23

Geospatial Technologies

Geographic information systems (GIS)Satellite navigation systems (GPS)Remote sensingOnline mapping + visualizations

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24

Geospatial technologies are utilized by _____

Businesses, organizations, individuals and government agencies to make decisions.

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25

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

Computer system/software that stores, analyzes, and displays information from multiple digital maps or data sets.

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26

Satellite Navigation Systems/Global Positioning System (GPS)

Satellites orbit the earth and communicate locational information to GPS receivers. (Absolute Location)

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27

Aerial Photography

Professional images captured from planes or drones.

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28

Remote Sensing

The use of cameras or other sensors mounted on aircraft or satellites which orbit the earth above the atmosphere to collect digital images of the earth's surface.

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29

Cultural Landscape/Built Environment

Physical artifacts that humans created which make up the landscape. Human produced.

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30

Placelessness

A location without a sense of place. No distinct attributes.

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31

Toponym -> Location's name

usually reflective of the culture & history of a place

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32

Site/Physical Landscape

Environmental features of a location; includes climate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation, elevation.

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33

Regionalization

The process geographers use to divide and categorize space into smaller areas of analysis.

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34

Distance Decay

The interaction between two places declines as the distance between the two places increases.

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35

Time-Space Compression

The increasing sense of accessibility and connectivity which seems to bring humans in distance places closer together.

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36

Cultural Ecology

The study of how humans interact or adapt to the environment. Theories have evolved over time due to developments in technology.

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37

Environmental Determinism

The belief that climate and landforms are the most powerful forces shaping human behavior and societal/cultural development.Used to justify racism. (18th Century)

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38

Possibilism

Acknowledges the limitations imposed by the natural environment, but focuses on the role of human culture to modify and respond to the environment to better fit human needs. (Modern)

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39

Scales of Analysis

Zooming In & Zooming Outto tell a story.

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40

Small scale maps

show LARGE area with SMALL amounts of data. Zoomed OUT. BIG # on map.

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41

Large scale maps

show SMALL area with LARGE amounts of data. Zoomed IN. Small # on map.

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42

National Scale Map

Substate Level of Analysis, can also be County Level of Analysis

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43

Global Scale Map

National Level of Analysis (Comparing & contrasting countries of the world.)

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44

Census Tract

Smallest scale of analysis - comprise about 1,000-8,000 ppl. Cloest to the size of a neighborhood

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45

Regions

one or more unifying characteristics (human or physical) or patterns of activity.

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46

formal region

united by one or more specific trait(s)

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47

Economic Region

have a common currency

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48

Social/Cultural Region

Has a common religion

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49

Political Region

The states & capitals in a region

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50

Environmental (Physical)

A physical area

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51

functional region

organized around a central node (focal point) and the relationship is typically based around economics, travel or communication.

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52

perceptual/vernacular region

based on a person's perspective or perception of a certain location; boundaries often vary widely because people have a different sense of what defines and unites these regions(informal)

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53

Regional boundaries are ___

Transitional, Contested, Overlapping

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54

Primary Economic Activities

Extraction of raw materials and natural resources from the earth's surface

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55

Secondary Economic Activities

Processing and manufacturing raw materials into a finished product.

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56

Tertiary Economic Activities

Service sector that focuses on moving, selling, and trading products in primary and secondary sectors.

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57

Quaternary Economic Activities

Knowledge-based sector, focusing on research and information creation and transfer.

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58

Quinary Economic Activities

Highest levels of decision making, includes top officials in government and business.

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59

MDC

"More" Developed Country

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60

LDC

"Less" Developed Country

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61

What is development

"A specified state of growth or advancement."Variations in development on different scales - global, regional, local.

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62

Economic Development

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)Gross National Product (GNP)Gross National Income (GNI)Sectoral Sector of the EconomyInformal & FormalIncome DistributionGini CoefficientUse of Fossil Fuels & Renewable Energy

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63

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Total value of officially recorded goods and services by the citizens and corporations within a country's borders in a given year. (goods + services = GDP)

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64

Gross National Product (GNP)

Total value of goods and services by the citizens and corporations of a country as well as foreign investments in a given year. (domestic + international goods + services = GNP)

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65

Gross National Income (GNI)

Most accurate measure of wealth, because it accounts for the impacts of trade. (GDP + (exports-imports) = GNI)

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66

Formal economic sector

Regulated and/or taxed by the government.Included in GDP & GNI.Typical professionsA country with a larger formal economy is one that is generally MORE developed.

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67

Informal economic sector

Mostly illegal products that are sold and/or NOT regulated by the government.Drugs, black market goods, babysitting, "under the table" work like landscaping or house cleaning

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68

Gini Coefficient

Measures the distribution of income within a population.Values between 0-1; The higher the #, the higher the income inequality.Generally, MDC have LOWER Ginis and LDCs have HIGHER Ginis

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69

Energy consumption

MDCs - Highest per capita consumption of energyDemand for use of fossil fuels is increasing in DCs

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70

Renewable Energy

Nuclear energy is increasing in MDCsHydroelectric is higher in DCs

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71

Social economic development

Fertility RatesInfant Mortality Rate (IMR)Access to HealthcareLife ExpectancyLiteracy RatesGender Inequality Index (GII)Human Development Index (HDI)

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72

Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

Calculation of the average number of children per woman, or the average number of children who would be born per woman during her childbearing years.

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73

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

The number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births

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74

Access to Healthcare

LOW in LDCsHIGH in MDCs

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75

Life Expectancy

Average number of years a person is expected to live based on mortality rates when they were born.

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76

Literacy Rates

LOW in LDCs, Almost widespread for most other countries.

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77

Human Development Index (HDI)

Score between 0 and 1Lower the score, LESS developed. Higher the score, HIGHER development. (LOW in LDCs, HIGH in MDCs)

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78

What Makes HDI a more accurate sense of development?

a combination of the four different indicators

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79

Gender Inequality Index (GII)

Score between 0 and 1High value = high inequality, low value = low inequalityCombines social + Economic + political indicators

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80

Maternal Mortality (MMR)

Rate of women who die during pregnancy or within one year of pregnancy due to pregnancy related complications for every 100,000 births. (High in LDCs, Low in MDCs)

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81

Adolescent Fertility

The number of births per 1,000 women aged 10-19 years old. (HIGH in LDCs, LOW in MDCs)

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82

Parliamentary Representation

Proportion of women that hold seats in Congressional positions - parliamentThe numbers are all over the place! Not a steady trend of MDCs vs. LDCs.

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83

Educational Attainment

Do women have access to secondary school?(LOW access in LDCs, High access in DCs and MDCs)

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84

How can we explain spatial variations in development?

Rostow's Stages of Economic Growth (aka Modernization Model)Wallerstein's World Systems Theory (aka Core-Periphery Model)Dependency TheoryBrandt Line (aka North-South Divide)

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85

Traditional Society (Stage 1 of Rostow's Model)

Political Power: Local or regional, based on ownership of landTrade: LocalSetting: RuralCulture: Family-basedLabor market: Subsistence farming, primary sector, informalTechnology: Low, little scienceWealth: Limited, little ability to "move up."

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86

Pre-Conditions to Take Off (Stage 2 of Rostow's Model)

Political Power: Leadership begin to invest in the countryTrade: Small-scale international trade begins to developSetting: Beginning of urbanizationLabor Market: Shift to secondary, beginning of industrializationTechnology: Transportation systems develop, mechanized farmingWealth: Increased investment in business & infrastructure

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87

Take off (Stage 3 of Rostow's Model)

Trade: Major export industry, increased international tradeSetting: UrbanizationLabor Market: Full industrialization and high output capabilitiesTechnologyAdvancements in technologyWealth: Businesses are making money -> shift to patterns of consumption.

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88

Drive to Maturity (Stage 4 of Rostow's Model)

Population: Growth declinesLabor Market: Specialization of industry, workers become skilled & widespread education.Technology: High levels of power consumption, improved transportation & communication systemsWealth: Investment in social infrastructure such as schools, hospitals, etc.

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89

High Mass Consumption (Stage 5 of Rostow's Model)

Population: Continues to decline or goes into the negative.Labor Market: Mostly tertiary sector; highly skilled & highly educated workforce.Technology: High levels of power consumption, improved transportation & communication systems.Wealth: People spend $$ on nonessential goods

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90

Criticisms of Rostow's Model

Based on industrialized, capitalist, democratic countries.SCALE & Uneven DevelopmentLinear Progress, GlobalizationEqual Potential to DevelopSustainability, Legacy of Colonialism

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91

Wallerstein's World System Theory

Wallerstein explains the spatial relationships between countries and explains uneven economic development.(Interdependence)

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92

What characterizes Wallerstein?

Legacy of colonialism = advantages in production for the core countries.Competition between core countries for colonies & trade.Military strength

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93

Core(Wallerstein)

Economically & politically dominantStrong military & alliesHighly interconnected transportation & communication infrastructureControl of the global market. Businesses are headquartered here.Former colonial powersHigher skill, capital-intensive production.

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94

semi-periphery(Wallerstein)

"Middle Income" countriesAspects of the core & the peripheryIn the process of industrializationActive in manufacturing and exporting goods and raw materials.Better transportation & communication than the periphery

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95

Periphery(Wallerstein)

Often have unstable governments.Less wealth, lower levels of education than the core.Export natural resources to core & semi-periphery.Not reliable transportation or communication infrastructure.Former coloniesLow skill, labor-intensive jobs, low wages.Weak laws to protect workers.

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96

Wallerstein Dependency Theory

The core Sells consumer goods and provides $$ flow to the SP & P, and the periphery sends cheap labor & natural resources to the SP & C countries.

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97

Brandt Line (aka the North-South Divide)

Spatial analysis of development. Generally, MDCs are in the northern hemisphere and LDCs are in the southern hemisphere. (Fallen out of favor due to the development of many NICs that are located in the southern hemisphere.)

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98

Where is population distributed?

East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Western Europe

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99

What factors influence the distribution of population?

NATURAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL / CULTURAL, POLITICAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS

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100

Where do people not settle?

In areas where it is too hot, cold, wet, hilly, or dry

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