microbes test 1

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1

roles of microbes

  • pathogens

  • food chain

  • digestion

  • foods and fermentation

  • antibiotics

  • biotechnology

  • bioremediation

  • disease research

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2

roles of microbes in food chain

  • Autotrophs: organisms that use sun energy to create glucose (perform photosynthesis)

  • Decomposers - makes nutrients in dead organism available to other organisms (bacteria and fungi)

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3

role of microbes in digestion

can cause infections and there are also microbes that help to digest food

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4

examples of microbes in food and fermentation

mushrooms, yeast, seaweed, spirulina; fermentation of yeast, bacteria for cheese or kimchi

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5

role of microbes in antibiotics and biotechnology

figure 1-6 part 5

  • production: microbes that create compounds that are able to kill other microbes

  • vectors and enzymes

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6

role of microbes in bioremediation

  • Metabolize oil - clean up environment by degrading oil

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7

why do we use microbes for biological research?

  • size/structure

    • Relatively small and simple

  • Large populations

    • Billions and trillions of cells

  • Rapid growth rate

    • Double in 20min or fewer

  • Research benefits

    • Vaccines 

    • Antibiotics

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8

how do we get nitrogen?

We rely on bacteria to get our nitrogen, through nitrogen fixation, they can do the same thing with sulfur

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9

microbes allow for the ___ in the ecosystem

recycling of nutrients

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10

how are microbes used in agriculture?

figure 1-6 part 1

  • Microbes in cows break down cellulose to CO2 and methane

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11

how are microbes used in biofuels?

figure 1-6 part 2

  • biofuels can be created with microbes, corn to ethanol

  • microbes can be used to mine as well

  • microbes ability to pull nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert it into another form is very important

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12

microbes are important in?

  • agriculture

  • energy/environment

  • food preservation and fermented foods or food additives

  • biotechnology (GMOs or production of pharmaceuticals)

  • Disease (new diseases or used as the treatment, cure, or preventative)

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13

where can microbes be found?

  • microorganisms are found nearly everywhere there is water and sometimes where there is not

  • Found in hot springs, ice, and sea vents

  • drilling cores

  • undersea vents

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14

why can microbes tolerate environmental stressors?

 because they have evolved to live in the environment where they are (environmental versatility)

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15

How did linneaus classify organisms?

everything was classified as plants or animals

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16

Who made and when were the classifications plants, animals, and protists

1866

Haeckel

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17

How did Whittaker separate the kingdoms in 1959?

monera, protists, fungi, plantae, and animalia

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18

How did Woose, Kandler, and Wheelis in 1990 make their classifications?

black8_fig_09_11.jpg

separated into bacteria and archaea (prokaryotes) and eukarya

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19

What are the three domains of life based on?

DNA sequencing data, they were able to tell how organisms were related to each other

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20

what do phylogenetic trees allow us to see?

how closely related organisms are

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21

prokaryotes

  • do not have a nucleus, DNA is freefloating

  • include archaea and bacteria

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22

what does it mean to for archaea to be environmental extremophiles?

they thrive in extreme environments

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23

what size and shape can prokaryotes be?

  • Between 0.5 - 2.0 micrometers, can be up to 60

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24

eukaryotes and examples

  • one domain; includes animals like us

    • “True nucleus” - DNA is found in a nucleus

  • Insects (mosquitos or bees) and other arthropods (scorpions or spiders)

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25

viruses

  • Viruses are not cells, and they are not considered living because they cannot make their own energy

  • Bacteriophage - viruses that infect bacteria

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26

prions

  • Very weird

  • Not viruses, they are bad proteins that have the wrong shape

  • Cause degenerative diseases in the brain, very rapid

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27

what is the first line of defense? how does it fight infections?

  • innate immune system

  • they fight every infection the same way

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28

What is the first line of defense’s physical factors made of?

the skin, mucous membranes, earwax, hair in nose, epiglottis, and peristalsis

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29

what is the skin composed of? what helps it inhibit microbial growth?

  • epidermis and dermis

  • Shedding and dryness of skin inhibit microbial growth

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30

epidermis

outer layer, consists of tightly packed cells, some contain keratin

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31

dermis

inner portion, made of connective tissue

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32

what are the mucous membranes made of?

mucus and ciliary escalators

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33

mucus

viscous glycoproteins that trap microbes and prevent tracts from drying out

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34

Ciliary escalator

  • transports microbes trapped in mucus away from lungs

    • Goblet cells produce mucus

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earwax

prevents microbes from entering ear

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hair in nose

traps microbes

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37

epiglottis

prevent food/microbes from entering lungs

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38

what do peristalsis, defecation, vomiting, and diarrhea do?

all physically remove microbes from body

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39

what are cleansing actions carried out by?

  • Lacrimal apparatus

  • Bodily fluids

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40

what does the lacrimal apparatus do?

drains tears, washes eyes

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41

what are bodily fluids functions?

  • Saliva, urine, vaginal secretions, semen, nasal mucus

  • Flow out and remove microbes and prevent colonization

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42

what are the chemical factors of the first line of defense?

  1. Sebum on skin: fungistatic fatty acid from perspiration

    1. Forms protective film and lowers pH (3-5)

  2. Lysozyme destroys bacterial cell wall

    1. Perspiration, tears, saliva, urine, and tissue fluids

  3. Low pH chemicals

    1. Gastric juice (1.2-3.0) - destroys microbes

    2. Vaginal secretions (3-5) - inhibits microbes

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43

second line of defense

  • has many functions

  • Non-specific (present at birth) - involve specific types of cells

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44

what happens after an injury?

  • Infections form pockets of infections called abcesses

  • Platelets in the blood rush to injury site to create a scab

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45

what are some of the functions of the second line of defense?

  • Infections form pockets of infections called abcesses

  • Platelets in the blood rush to injury site to create a scab

  • Phagocytosis - engulf pathogens and destroy them

  • Secrete chemicals to cause inflammation

  • Some cells interact to stimulate the third line of defense

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46

what did Metchnikoff do? 1845-1916

  • Won nobel prize

  • Worked on role of white blood cells in fighting

  • Discovered phagocytes in human blood

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47

what is inflammation?

  • redness, swelling, pain, and heat localized at the site of infection

  • Attracts phagocytic cells to infected area

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48

what does inflammation do? can it cause damage?

  • Effective inflammatory response isolates and limits tissue damage, destroying damaged cells and pathogens

  • Inflammation can result in considerable damage to healthy tissue if reaction becomes widespread

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49

systemtic inflammatory reaction consequences

  • septic shock

  • uncontrollable fever

  • death in up to 30% of individuals

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50

what causes toxic shock syndrome?

  • Certain bacteria, including staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus pyogenes produce “superantigens”

  • these cause activation of 20% of T cells in the body, creating a cytokine storm

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51

what is toxic shock syndrome associated with? how many cases a year? which famous person died from it?

  • superabsorbent tampons

  • Current numbers stand at 1-17 cases per 100,000 menstruating people per year

  •  Caused death of very famous man in 1990 - creator of the muppets - Jim Henson

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53

what is the third line of defense? what cells does it use?

  • adaptive

  • uses specific cells

  • b cells and t cells

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54

what does the third line of defense do?


  • Reacts to specific proteins or other complex molecules on the pathogen’s cell surface

    • Antigens

    • Learns about every infection we’ve had

    • Reacts to specific parts of a molecule

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55

characteristics of the third line of defense?

  • Specificity of antigen-antibody is dependent on lymphocyte cell receptors interacting with individual pathogen

  • Memory: subsequent exposures to the same antigen result in rapid production of large quantities of antigen-reactive T cells or antibodies

    • Like vaccines

  • Tolerance: the acquired inability to make an adaptive immune response to one’s own antigens

    • Discrimination between foreign and host antigens - self and non-self

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56

t cells activate a lot of things

b cells can produce antibodies to fight antigen

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57

what are anitbodies made by? what are they made of? where are they found?

  • made by B cells which become plasma cells that produce antibodies

  • they are immunoglobulins or protein molecules

  • found in serum, milk, and gastric secretions

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IgG

  • Located in tissue fluid and plasma

  • Activates complement - punches holes in infected cells

  • Defends against bacteria, viruses, and toxins

  • Protects fetus and newborn - found in placenta or breast milk

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IgA

  • Located in secretions

  • Defends against bacteria and viruses

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60

IgM

  • Located in plasma

  • Reacts with naturally occurring antigens on RBC’s following certain blood trasnfusions

  • Activates complements, which destroys blood cells

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61

IgD

  • Located on surface of most B lymphocytes

  • Plays a role in B cell activation

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IgE

  • Located in secretions

  • Promotes inflammation and allergic reactions

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63

what are the three steps of antibody production?

  • exposure to antigen and secretion of antigen-specific antibody

  • antigen-stimulated B cells multiply and differentiate into plasma and memory cells (primary antibody response)

  • Memory B cells generated may live for years and quickly transform into antibody-secreting cells (secondary antibody response)

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64

antibody effects

Agglutination

  • cross-bridges of antigen and antibody, complex forms

Complement mediated effects

  • Opsonization

  • Lysis

Neutralization

  • Toxins and viruses, prevents from binding to cell

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65

What are the T cell types?

  • Helper T cells: stimulate immune response, activate t cells, b cells, and mmacrophages

  • Delayed hypersensitivity T cells - allergies

  • Cytotoxic T cells - death of infected cell

  • Memory t cells: remember infection and can turn into cell to fight it

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66

Active vs passive immunity

active : patient made antibodies

Passive: someone else passed on antibodies

Not everyone has had artificial passive

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67

what are vaccines? what are they made of?

Designed to provide the first exposure to disease-causing organisms without having the risk of disease

  • Made with dead or attenuated,weakened pathogen, or with pathogen fragments

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68

what is herd immunity? how does it work?

  • is the resistance of a group to infection due to immunity of a high proportion of the members of the group

  • Immunized people protect non-immunized people because the pathogen cannot be passed on and the cycle of infectivity is broken

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69

how is health measured from prehistoric remains?

  • harris lines

  • wilson bands

  • enamel hypoplasia

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70

what are harris lines? what do they indicate?

  •  Any of various dense transverse lines observed in radiographs of long bones, representing bone regrowth after temporary cessation of longitudinal growth

    • Indicates during childhood when bones were growing, shows a period of malnutrition or sickness

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71

what are wilson bands

changes in tooth enamel due to poor diet

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72

what is enamel hypoplasia? what does it indicate?

  • irregularities in tooth enamel

    • Indicates periods of malnutrition

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73

characteristics of early man?

  • gathering

  • hunting

  • agriculture - 10,000 BP

    • crops

    • fishing

    • domestication of animals

    • settlements

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74

animal domestication during the neolithic/agricultural revolution. how did it cause more disease?

  • Livestock, pets (livestock- cattle, work - horses, pets - dogs)

  • Diseases shared with animals - people began living with animals and experiencing their diseases (ectoparasites - fleas and ticks)

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75

environmental disruption during the neolithic/agricultural revolution.

  • Living in groups (settlements)

  • Tons of people were living in close proximity to each other and interacting every day

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76

problems with city life

  • Garbage

  • Social change - rules

  • Changes in work

  • Crowds

  • Fire

  • Disease

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77

what was the pharaoh’s plague?

  • bloody urine

    • Caused by Schistosomiasis - blood flukes - worms that live in blood

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78

what was suspected to be in athens?

typhoid or typhus

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79

Rome diseases

  • Roman fever = Malaria

  • Antonine plague = smallpox?

  • Cyprian plague = Smallpox or measles? Ergot poisoning? - ergot is a fungus that infects barley and millet

  • Justinian plague = Bubonic plague

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80

what is schistosomiasis? how do the worms get into the body?

  • parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma 

  • Larval forms of the parasites penetrate the skin of people in the water

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urinary schistosomiasis

there is progressive damage to the bladder, ureters and kidneys

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82

intestinal schistosomiasis

there is progressive enlargement of the liver and spleen, intestinal damage, and hypertension of the abdominal blood vessels (high blood pressure)

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83

ancient evidence of schistosomiasis

  • an analysis of mummified skin revealed traces of proteins belonging to S. mansoni - the first proof that ancient Nubians (1,500 BP), or any ancient civilization were affected by schistosomiasis - found proteins in the skin

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84

how is typhoid passed? what are the symptoms? how long does it last? who is most susceptible?

  • Bacteria passed in feces

  • Diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection

  • Illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days, and most persons recover without treatment

  • Elderly, infants, and those with impaired immune systems more likely to have severe illness

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85

when did the plague of athens break out? what facilitated it? what disease was it suspected to be?

  • broke out in Greece during the Peloponnesian War in 430 BC

  • Inhabitants of Athens retreated behind the city-state’s walls for protection from Sparta

  • Cramped quarters inevitably became a breeding ground for the disease

  • typhus or typhoid

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86

is typhoid in the US? what did Typhoid Mary do?

  • Does exist, but isn’t very common due to good sanitation

  • Typhoid Mary killed about 1,300 people due to spreading disease to families that she worked for

  • She was quarantined for the rest of her life because she refused to take her gallbladder out

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87

what plagues were in the ancient world?

  • Smallpox - in the Roman world and everywhere - viral

  • Shigella - bacteria

  • Malaria - protozoal

  • Measles - viral

  • Cholera - bacterial

  • Dengue - viral

  • Plague - Justinian - led to the middle ages - bacterial

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88

Why is it hard to know what the cause of ancient disease was?

  • Ancient people did not record the information about the disease

  • Ancient people could not identify the disease the same way we do

  • We cannot isolate bacteria from people who have been dead for thousands of years

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89

what time period was the Middle Ages?

  • Talking about Fall of Roman Empire to the fall of Constantinople, around 2000 years

  • Cities were becoming densely packed

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90

What were the 3 new diseases of the middle ages?

  • Leprosy (ancient) - transmitted by direct contact

  • Tuberculosis - transmitted by inhaling bacteria

  • Sweating sickness - high fever, sweating, and high mortality rate (no real definition)

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91

where was leprosy found? what does it do? what are the complications? how is it transmitted in the US?

  • was in egypt around 3,500 BP

  • Actually not very contagious

  • Leads to nerve damage and death of extremeties

  • Disease frightened people

    • Many sent to live in leper colonies - isolated there for rest of their life

    • Including those with other diseases

  • Slow growing bacteria makes treatment difficult

  • Similar to tuberculosis

  • Extended antibiotic treatment

  • In US, transmitted by armadillos

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ancient plagues (3)

  • Malaria - transmitted by mosquitos

  • Smallpox - relatively high mortality rate

  • Bubonic - caused by yersinia pestis, can get it from camping near yosemite

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93

what were the 8 ancient treatments

  • bathing in blood

  • blood letting

  • mercury/arsenic

  • animal dung

  • moldy bread

  • therapeutic stink

  • mice

  • venom

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94

bathing in blood

  • Blood of children and virgins was best

  • Used as a therapy for leprosy until 1790

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95

blood letting

  • Balanced the “humors” (bad bodily fluids)

  • Used leeches 

  • Used for many diseases, including plague

  • George washington was treated this way before his death

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mercury/arsenic

  • Used to treat infectious diseases, including syphilis, until the early 20th century

  • Also made people crazy/killed them

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97

animal dung

  • Egyptians used it for diseases and infections

  • Some antimicrobial properties, could also cause tetanus

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98

moldy bread

  • Egyptians used to disinfect cuts

  • Many microbes are used to create antibiotics so they somewhat act as antibiotics

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99

Therapeutic stink (aka farts in a jar)

  • Plague thought to be caused by bad vapors

  • Use like to defeat like

  • Thought they could balance the smell

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100

mice

  • Egyptians would make mouse paste for toothaches

  • Elizabethan england - cut a mouse in half to cure warts

  • Also used to treat whooping cough, smallpox, measles, and bed-wetting

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