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What is microbiology?

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1

What is microbiology?

The study of microbes.

2

What are five groups of living microorganisms?

Bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists, and helminths.

3

What are nonliving/noncellular entities?

Viruses and prions (infectious proteins).

4

What is the endosymbiotic theory?

It describes the evolution of eukaryotes as a series of sequential cell-merging events between an ancient eukaryotic ancestor and certain prokaryotes. Basically states eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells.

5

What is a pathogen?

A microbe that causes disease.

6

What is an opportunistic pathogen?

Pathogens that only cause disease when their host, the targeted organism, is weakened in some way.

7

What has Robert Hooke contributed to Microbiology?

The first scientist to publish a description of cells (eukaryotic cells) published Micrographia.

8

What has Antonie van Leeuwenhoek contributed to Microbiology?

Refined earlier versions of the microscope and was the first to see bacteria.

9

What has Carlolus (Carl) Linnaeus contributed to Microbiology?

Developed taxonomic naming system for organisms.

10

What has Edward Jenner contributed to Microbiology?

Successfully vaccinates against smallpox.

11

What has Ignaz Semmelweis contributed to Microbiology?

First develops antiseptic techniques, implements hand washing to prevent childbed fever.

12

What has Florence Nightingale contributed to Microbiology?

Established the use of aseptic techniques in nursing practices.

13

What has Louis Pasteur contributed to Microbiology?

Disproved spontaneous generation, proved biogenesis is responsible for propagation of life, reinforced germ theory of disease with Koch.

14

What has Joseph Lister contributed to Microbiology?

Publishes aseptic surgery techniques.

15

What has Alexander Fleming contributed to Microbiology?

Discovered penicillin.

16

What has Rosalind Franklin contributed to Microbiology?

Discovered the density and double heix of DNA.

17

What have Emmanuelle Charpentier & Jennifer Doudna contributed to Microbiology?

Developed a method for high-precision genome editing.

18

What was the hypothesis of spontaneous generation?

The idea that life comes from nonliving items.

19

What was the hypothesis of biogenesis?

The idea that life emerges from exisiting life.

20

Which of the following was proved to be correct by Francesco Redi and finally by Louis Pasteur biogenesis or spontaneous generation?

Biogenesis

21

What is the germ theory of disease?

States that microbes cause infectious diseases.

22

The causative agent of disease is also known as the ____________ agent.

etiological

23

Who developed four principles that established criteria for determining the etiological agent of an infectious disease?

Robert Koch

24

Which three pioneers in Microbiology contributed to various aspects of aseptic technique?

Ignaz Semmelweis, Joseph Lister, and Florence Nightingale.

25

What is the scientific method and what are the steps involved in answering the initial question?

Starts with a question that can be investigated, a hypothesis-a prediction based on prior experience/observation-proposed as a potential answers researcher collects and analyzes observations (data), and formulates a conclusion which states the accuracy of the hypothesis.

26

What is the difference between observations and conclusions?

The first is data collected using our senses or instrumentation. The second is an interpretation of that data. Must have many different methods of data and a lot of the first to draw the second.

27

What is the difference between a law and a theory?

The first predicts what happens and the second predicts how and why something happens.

28

What is a law?

Predict what happens and are a precise statement/mathematical formula that predict a specific occurrence.

29

What is a theory?

Explain how and why something occurs, have been proven through many studies with consistent, supporting conclusions. They encompass laws.

30

When referring to a microbe’s “morphology”, what is being described?

The physical traits such as shape, size and arrangement that are used in classification of microbes.

31

List the eight ranking in the taxonomic hierarchy from broadest to narrowest.

Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

32

Name the domains.

Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya

33

Name the six kingdoms.

Archaea, Bacteria, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia, Protists

34

What is a strain?

A genetic variation of the same species. Different ones usually have a hallmark genetic trait that warrants special designation. Mutation and genetic transfer can lead to new ones.

35

What is binomial nomenclature?

A two-name system that includes genus and species. First name is capitalized and reflects the genus, whereas the second name is lowercase and designates the species.

36

Who developed binomial nomenclature?

Carl Linnaeus

37

Describe what occurs in the symbiotic relationship parasitism?

The host is hurt.

38

Describe what occurs in the symbiotic relationship mutualism?

A relationship where the host is helped.

39

Describe what occurs in the symbiotic relationship commensalism?

A relationship that has no perceived benefit or cost to the host.

40

What is a biofilm?

Sticky communities made up of single or diverse species of microbial.

41

What is the advantages of microbes living in biofilm?

It allows them to coordinate responses within an environment making the community more durable than free-floating bacteria.

42

What is an example of biofilm?

Dental plaque

43

What is our normal microbiota?

Human flora (bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotic microbes).

44

What are the functions of normal microbiota?

They train our immune system, provide vitamins for us, and help us digest food. May even impact mood and brain function.

45

What is a common cause of disruptions in the normal microbiota?

Antibiotic therapy. Opportunistic pathogens are more likely to thrive and establish infections.

46

What is bioremediation?

Approach that harnesses the power of microbes to help clean up the toxic waste. Certain nonpathogenic microbes are used to metabolize toxic substances into harmless intermediates.

47

What is culture media (growth media)?

Mixtures of nutrients that support organismal growth in an artificial setting.

48

What is the goal of a septic culturing techniques?

To only have microbes in a given sample grow.

49

What is the end goal of using the streak plate technique?

To spread the sample thinly enough on an agar plate so that various cells in the same group are sufficiently separated and can give rise to colonies.

50

What is a colony?

Grouping of cells that is sufficiently separated and can give rise to individual colonies. Clones of parents, can be helpful in identifying microbial species.

51

What properties can be determined by using a simple staining procedure?

Typically the size, shape, and cellular arrangement.

52

Name the kinds of structural staining methods.

Flagella staining, capsule staining, and bacterial endospore staining.

53

What are endospores?

Specialized dormant structures that certain bacteria such as Bacillus species and Clostridium species make in response to stressful conditions.

54

What are capsules?

Sticky carbohydrate structures that some bacteria produce as a form of protection and also help them adhere to surfaces. Appears as a clear halo around a stained cell. Some pathogens require it to establish infection.

55

The Gram stain is a differential stain. What bacterial characteristic is it differentiating between?

Between Gram-positive or gram-negative.

56

What color are Gram-positive cells?

Purple

57

What color are Gram-negative cells?

Colorless

58

Name the primary stain, mordant, decolorizer, and counterstain used in the Gram staining procedure.

Crystal violet, iodine, acetone-alcohol, safranin.

59

The acid-fast stain is a differential stain. What bacterial characteristic is it differentiating between?

Between cells with and without waxy cell walls.

60

What is the name of the waxy substance that is tested for in the acid-fast stain?

Mycolic Acid

61

Name the primary stain, decolorizer, and counterstain used in the acid-fast stain.

Red stain, acid-alcohol solution, methylene blue.

62

After performing the acid-fast stain, what color is an acid-fast positive organism?

Bright pink-red

63

After performing the acid-fast stain, what color is an acid-fast negative organism?

Blue

64

How do you determine the final magnification of a specimen when using a compound microscope?

Multiplying the magnification of the ocular objective lenses.

65

What is the final magnification of a specimen when using a compound microscope’s 10x objective lens. (Remember, a compound microscope’s ocular lens is 10x).

400x

66

When using a microscope, what is resolution?

The ability to distinguish two distinct points as seperate.

67

Why is immersion oil used when viewing a specimen under high-power (100x) magnification?

Ensures that the light interacts with the specimen on the glass slide is smoothly funneled up toward the high-power objective lens instead of scattering when it reaches the air between the slide and lens.

68

What type of microscope is used to view stained specimens in the lab and are the simplest and most common form of microscopy?

Compound microscopes

69

What type of microscopy displays a darker contrasting image on a light background?

Bright field microscopy

70

One advantage of electron microscopy is that resolution improves with ___________ electron beam wavelengths.

smaller

71

____________ microscopes provide high-magnification and high resolution of specimens but are expensive and require extensive training to use.

Electron

72

Fluorescent dyes are called

fluorochromes

73

What is immunofluorescence?

A technique in which a sample is exposed to fluorescent-tagged antibodies that recognize specific targets. If the sample contains protein then antibodies will bind to the sample and glow when viewed under UV light.

74

What subatomic particles make up atoms?

Protons, neutrons, and electrons.

75

What are the charges of protons and where are they located?

Positive and within the nucleus of an atom.

76

What are the charges of neutrons and where are they located?

Noncharged and within the nucleus of an atom.

77

What are the charges of electrons and where are they located?

Negatively charged and around the nucleus of an atom.

78

What is an element’s atomic number?

The number of protons in an atom.

79

How is an element’s atomic mass determined?

The mass of protons and neutrons in an atom. The average mass of one mole of the given element.

80

What is an ion?

A charged atom that has an unequal number of protons and electrons. Can be positive or negative.

81

What is a cation?

An atom that has a positive charge as a result of losing electrons.

82

What is an anion?

Has a negative as a result of gaining electrons.

83

What is an isotope?

An atom that has the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.

84

Which subatomic particle is responsible for producing isotopes of a certain element?

Neutrons

85

What information is given in a molecular formula?

Reveals what elements are in a molecule and the ratio.

86

What is the difference between organic vs inorganic molecules?

The first contains carbon and hydrogen and the second lacks carbon. The first one is more complex.

87

What is an organic molecule?

Something that contains carbon and hydrogen, is necessary for life, and more complex.

88

What is an inorganic molecule?

Something that lacks carbon and is necessary for life.

89

What is the role of a functional group?

Often participate in chemical reactions, and the presence of certain ones can be used to predict chemical properties of a molecule.

90

What is the difference between a solvent and a solute?

One is a dissolving agent and the other is a dissolved substance.

91

What is a solvent?

A dissolving agent in an aqueous solution.

92

What is a solute?

A dissolved substance in an aqueous solution.

93

On the pH scale, what pH is pure water?

7

94

What pH range is considered acidic?

Below 7

95

What does an acidic solution contain more of?

H+

96

What pH range is considered basic?

More than 7

97

What does a basic solution contain more of?

OH-

98

What is the function of a buffer?

It is a compound that stabilizes solution pH by absorbing or releasing hydrogen atoms.

99

What are electron shells?

Regions around the atomic nucleus where electrons are found. Each shell has a maximum number of electrons it can hold. The shells closer to nucleus hold fewer electrons than the ones further from nucleus.

100

What is a valence shell?

The atom’s outermost shell. It’s electrons typically participate in chemical reactions are found in it.

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