gero module 2

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Crystallized Intelligence

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181 Terms

1

Crystallized Intelligence

the ability to retain and use knowledge that was acquired through experience

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2

fluid intelligence

our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

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3

Immunosenescence

the gradual advanced age-related deterioration of the immune system that increases the risk for, and severity of, infection in the elderly

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4

Presbycusis

a gradual loss of sensorineural hearing that occurs as the body ages

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5

Presbyesophagus

age-related changes to the esophagus causing reduced strength of esophageal contractions and slower transport of food down the esophagus

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6

Presbyopia

farsightedness caused by loss of elasticity of the lens of the eye, occurring typically in middle and old age.

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7

Fluid Changes with Aging

Extracellular fluid remains constant

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8

Intracellular fluid reduced

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9

Less total body fluid

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10

Body mass with aging

Lean body mass decreases

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11

Total body fat increases

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12

Notehowever that the changes in body fat does not leave the subcutaneous fat that insulates the skin.

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13

Hormone levels with aging

Increase Antidiuretic Hormone

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14

Increase Atrial Natriuretic Peptide

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15

Decrease Aldosterone

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16

Respiratory System & aging

Calcification of costal cartilage, trachea, and rib cage more rigid

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17

Reduction of cough and laryngeal reflexes

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18

Increased residual capacity and reduced vital capacity

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19

High risk for respiratory infection

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20

Vitalcapacity is the maximum amount that can be expelled & residual capacity is the amount of air that is left in the lungs after exhalation

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21

Cardiovascular System & aging

Heart dimensions are unchanged

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22

Heart muscle loses efficiency and contractile strength + reduced cardiac output with physiologic stress

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23

Valves become thick and rigid

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24

Blood vessels reduce elasticity

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25

Oxygen used less efficiently

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26

Gastrointestinal System & aging

Less acute taste sensations

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27

Decreased esophageal motility

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28

Atrophy of the small and large intestines

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29

Increased risk of aspiration, indigestion and constipation

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30

Urinary System & aging

Decline of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration by approximately 50% by age 90.

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31

Reduced bladder capacity: Urinary frequency, urgency, and nocturia are common in older adults

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32

Incontinence is NOT a normal part of aging

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33

Musculoskeletal System & aging

Thinning disks and shortened vertebrae

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34

Reduced muscle mass, strength and movement

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35

Decreased bone mineral and mass

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36

Diminished calcium absorption

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37

Increased risk of fractures

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38

Nervous System & aging

Decline in weight and blood flow to the brain: Does not affect thinking and behavior

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39

Reduction in neurons, nerve fibers and cerebral blood flow

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40

Slower response to change in balance

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41

Hypothalamus less effective in temperature regulation

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42

Changes in sleep patterns with frequent awakening

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43

Intelligence & aging

Basic intelligence is upheld

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44

Crystallized intelligence is maintained

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45

Fluid intelligence may decline

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46

Memory & aging

Short-term memory decline

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47

Long-term stays the same

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48

Age related forgetfulness

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49

Touch & aging

Reduction of tactile sensation

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50

Reduced ability to sense pressure, discomfort, change in temperature

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51

Vision & aging

Narrowing of the visual field-decreased peripheral vision

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52

Pupil size reduction & less reactive to light

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53

Depth perception distortion

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54

Decline in visual acuity

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55

Hearing & aging

Distortion of high-pitched sounds

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56

Cerumen increases: Affecting hearing

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57

Alteration in equilibrium

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58

Immune System & aging

Depressed immune response

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59

Risk for infection becomes significant

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60

Inflammatory defenses decline

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61

Inflammation presents atypically

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62

Thermoregulation

Normal body temperatures are lowered in older age; Mean body temperature can range from 96.9 F. to 98.3 F

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63

Ability to respond to cold temperatures is reduced

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64

Response to heat is altered

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65

Personality & aging

Remains consistent with that of the earlier years

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66

Changes may occur due to disease, retirement, death of significant other, loss of independence, reduced income , and disability.

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67

No personality type labels all older adults

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68

Learning & aging

Learning ability is usually not changed

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69

Learning is best when new information relates to previous learned Information.

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70

Integumentary System & aging

Thin skin that provides a less effective barrier

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71

Decreased ability to detect and regulate temp

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72

Dry skin from decrease in endocrine secretion

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73

Loss of elastin

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74

Increase in vascular fragility

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75

Pruritus

severe itching

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76

Basal Cell Carcinoma

malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis

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77

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

malignant tumor of the squamous epithelial cells in the epidermis

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78

Primary ECF particle

Na

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79

Primary ICF partice

K

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80

Pressure of ECF & ICF

Almost identical

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81

Excess Volume Causes

Congestive Health Failure (CHF)

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82

Renal Failure

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83

Cirrhosis

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84

Overhydration

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85

Excess Volume S & S

Peripheral edema

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86

Periorbital edema

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87

Elevated blood pressure (B/P)

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88

Dyspnea

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89

Altered Level of Consciousness (LOC)

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90

Excess Volume Lab Findings

Low Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

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91

Low Hemoglobin (Hgb)

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92

Low Hematocrit (Hct)

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93

Low Serum Osmolality

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94

Low Specific Gravity of Urine

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95

Excess volume tx

Diuretics

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96

Fluid Restrictions

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97

Daily Weight

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98

Monitor K

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99

Fluid Volume Deficit causes

Inadequate fluid intake

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100

Hemorrhage

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