Cold War Key Dates (1945-1991)

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January 1945

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1

January 1945

Most Eastern European states are liberated by the Soviet Union

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2

4-11th February 1945

Yalta Conference

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3

Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill

The leaders of the USSR, USA and the UK at Yalta

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4

April 1945

Roosevelt dies.

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5

May 1945

WWII ends in Europe.

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6

July 1945

Attlee becomes PM and the USA gains atomic weapons.

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7

17 July-1 August 1945

Potsdam conference

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8

Stalin, Truman, Attlee

The leaders of the USSR, USA and UK at Potsdam

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9

August 1945

USA drops two atomic bombs on Japan.

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10

September 1945

Japan surrenders

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11

22nd February 1946

Kennan's 'Long Telegram' is sent.

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12

6th March 1946

Churchill's 'Iron Curtain' speech.

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13

June 1946

Communists win in Polish elections.

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14

October 1946

Communists win in Bulgarian elections (75% popular vote).

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15

November 1946

Communists win in Romanian elections (80% of the votes).

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16

The Greek Civil War

The event that influenced Truman to implement financial aid to European nations rebuilding after the war (the Truman Doctrine).

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17

January 1947

British and US zones in Germany merge to form Bizonia.

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18

12th March 1947

Truman Doctrine announced.

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19

March-April 1947

The Moscow Conference

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20

June 1947

The Marshall Plan is announced by George Marshall.

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21

February 1948

A new currency is introduced to the Western zones of Germany.

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22

February-June 1948

The London Conference of Western powers

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23

June 1948

Communists gain control of Czechoslovakia.

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24

7th June 1948

The Deutsche Mark was introduced to the Western Zones of Germany and West Berlin. The West Germans are given permission to create a new constitution.

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25

June 1948

The London Conference decided that Germany should have its own Constituent Assembly.

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26

September 1948

Cominfrom created.

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27

24 June 1948-12 May 1949

The Berlin Blockade

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28

August 1949

The Soviet Union gains the A-Bomb

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29

September 1949

NSC-68 is approved for recommendation

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30

November 1949

FRG joins the Council of Europe

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31

Andrei Zhdanov

Created the Zhdanov Doctrine as he viewed the world in two separate camps: communist and capitalist.

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32

Boleslaw Bierut

Replaced Wladyslaw Gomulka as Polish deputy prime minister in 1948

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33

Dean G. Acheson

Assistant Secretary of State (1941-1949) and Secretary of State (1949-1953)

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34

Edvard Beneš

Czech president in 1946 but resigned in June 1948, leaving pro-Moscow communists in control.

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35

January 1950

Defensive Perimeter Strategy

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36

January 1950

Alger Hiss was convicted of perjury after passing on information to the USSR whilst working for the US State Department.

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37

February 1950

China forms a military alliance with the USSR

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38

February 1950

Stalin promises to provide North Korea with weapons indirectly.

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39

April 1950

NSC-68 is presented and implemented.

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40

25th June 1950

The Korean War starts when the North attacks the South.

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41

27th June 1950

The USA sends troops to aid South Korea through the UN.

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42

October 1950

Forces from China help North Korea in the war.

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43

November 1950

China officially enters into war against South Korea.

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44

Security Council 1950

The USSR boycotted them and as a result, did not have a say in whether troops were sent to Korea or not.

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45

General Douglas MacArthur

Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) implements the Defensive Perimeter Strategy

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46

PRC

People's Republic of China (1949)

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47

Kim Il-Sung

Leader of North Korea

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48

Syngman Rhee

Leader of South Korea

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49

Jiang Jieshi

Leader of Taiwan

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50

Mao Zedong

Leader of the PRC

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51

Joseph Dodge

Economic advisor to SCAP

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52

'Super balanced budget'

Scheme for Japan to get a surplus of 157 million yen ($4 million).

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53

GATT

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

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54

April 1951

MacArthur is dismissed as SCAP by Truman.

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55

March 1951

The Rosenbergs were executed after being charged as communists.

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56

June 1951

Peace is first proposed between North and South Korea.

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57

September 1951

The San Francisco Peace Treaty

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58

January 1953

Eisenhower becomes President.

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59

March 1953

Stalin dies.

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60

March 1953

Khrushchev becomes the leader of the USSR.

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61

July 1953

A final peace agreement in Korea is reached.

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62

Panmunjom Armistice Agreement

  1. A demilitarised zone of 2km on either side of the 38th Parallel.

  2. All military forces should withdraw to their territory.

  3. The repatriation of prisoners should begin.

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63

October 1953

NSC 182/2 is presented.

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64

5 million deaths (10% of the pre-war population), 40,000 American deaths and 100,000 wounded.

The effects of the Korean War.

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65

Joseph McCarthy

An American Republican senator between the years 1947 and 1957.

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66

McCarthysim

Anti-communist sentiment and fears grew within America, leading to incredibly extreme reactions towards anyone perceived of being left wing.

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67

Created in 1938 and made permanent in 1945.

The House of Un-American Activities Commission

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68

January 1954

Dulles announces the 'massive retaliation' strategy.

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69

July 1954

The Geneva Conference

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70

Eisenhower and Khrushchev

The leaders of the USA and the USSR at the Geneva Conference.

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71

September 1954

SEATO established.

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72

John Foster Dulles

Secretary of State under Eisenhower

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73

The Viet Minh

A nationalist, communist military force in Vietnam.

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74

Ho Chi Minh

Leader of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

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75

Dien Bien Phu

A huge military defeat for France in Indochina

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76

Ngo Dinh Diem

Leader of the Republic of Vietnam.

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77

17th parallel

Where Vietnam was divided at the Geneva Conference in 1954.

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78

January 1955

The North decides to use revolutionary action to unite Vietnam

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79

May 1955

West Germany joins NATO and the Warsaw Pact is set up, and Austrian State Treaty

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80

May-July 1955

Geneva Summit

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81

August 1955

Diem refuses to hold elections for reunification

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82

1955

Hallstein Doctrine

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83

February 1956

Khrushchev's secret speech

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84

June-October 1956

The Polish Rising

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85

August 1956

Collectivisation was underway in North Vietnam and agricultural production increased, however, 1 million refugees fled to South Vietnam

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86

October-November 1956

The Hungarian Rising, 4000 Hungarian citizens were killed and 20,000 went into self-imposed exile.

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87

1956

6000 people were killed in North Vietnam during a military revolt

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88

May 1957

The USSR developed the first ICBM

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89

October 1957

Sputnik is launched

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90

November 1957

The Gaither Report is commisioned

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91

November 1958

The Berlin Ultimatum

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92

January 1959

Batista is overthrown by Castro

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93

September 1959

Khrushchev visits Camp David

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94

February 1960

Anastas Mikoyan, a Soviet Politburo member, offers Cuba economic and military aide.

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95

1st May 1960

Power's U2 Spy Plane is shot down

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96

May 1960

The Paris Summit

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97

June 1961

Kennedy and Khrushchev meet in Vienna

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98

July 1960

Castro promises to spread revolution across Central and Southern America

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99

January 1961

John F. Kennedy is president

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100

April 1961

The Bay of Pigs fiasco, Kennedy's first major failure

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