bio exam #1

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Microevolution

1 / 111

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

112 Terms

1

Microevolution

The change inn the gene pool of a population over time

New cards
2

Evolution

The gradual change in a species/gene pool over time

New cards
3

Macroevilution

Evolutionary change above the species level

New cards
4

Speciation

the evolutionary process by which one species splits into two or more new species/origin of new species

New cards
5

The biological species concept

A species is a group of populations whose members can not with members of other species.

New cards
6

morphological species concept

observable physical traits and can be applied to asexual organisms and fossils (cell wall, shape, habitats) (number of legs, mouthparts(insects))

New cards
7

ecological species concept

Ecological niche(the job) two species can be similar in appearance but distinguishable based on what they eat, live, do, and how to interact

New cards
8

phylogenectic species concept

the smallest group of individuals that share a common ancestor

New cards
9

biological species concept

concept emphasizes reproductive isolation, proposed by Ernst Mayer.

New cards
10

Reproductive barriers

Physical, biological, and behavioral barriers that can prevent interbreeding between different species.

New cards
11

Pre-zygotic barriers

Prevent mating or fertilization between species;

New cards
12

post zygotic barriers

operate after hybrid zygotes have formed

New cards
13

habitat isolation (prezygotic)

encounter each other rarely, or not at all

New cards
14

temporal isolation (prezygotic)

breeding at different times/seasons

New cards
15

behavioral isolation (prezygotic)

different courtship rituals

New cards
16

mechanical isolation (prezygotic)

Incompatible reproductive parts, different sexual parts

New cards
17

gametic isolation (prezygotic)

sperm and egg are incompatible

New cards
18

reduced hybrid viability (postzygotic)

When the genes of different species interact and impair hybrid development. (short-lived hybrids)

New cards
19

reduced hybrid fertility (post-zygotic)

Even if hybrids are vigorous, they may be sterile.

New cards
20

New cards
21

EX: Horse + Donkey = Mule

New cards
22

hybrid breakdown (postzygotic)

Hybrid is fertile, but when they breed the next generation is sterile.

New cards
23

orgin of land plants

New cards
24

Bryophytes

3 phyla are small herbaceous (non-woody) plants, nonvascular plants, and seedless (mosses, liverworts, hornworts) no xylem or phloem, instead they have hydroids and leptoids.

New cards
25

Life cycles dominated by gametophyte

gametophytes are larger and longer-living than sporophytes

New cards
26

Mosses

the oldest land plants with stomata,

New cards
27

protonema

Branching, one-celled-thick filaments produced by germinating moss spores, become the gametophyte in moss.

New cards
28

rhizoids

thread-like structures that anchor non-vascular plants to the ground (mosses and liverworts)

New cards
29

hydroids

special water-conducting cells in the center of bryophyte stems

New cards
30

leptoids

food conducting cells in bryophytes

New cards
31

sporophyte

Diploid, or spore-producing, phase of an organism. Makes haploid spores by meiosis.

New cards
32

Linneaus' system of classification

Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

New cards
33

Whitaker 5 Kingdoms

Monera, Protista Fungi, Plantae, animalia

New cards
34

Taxonomy

the ordered division and naming of organisms

New cards
35

phylogenetic tree

diagram showing evolutionary relationships of organisms with a common ancestor;

New cards
36

Archegonia

female gametangia

New cards
37

Antheridia

male gametangia, produce and release sperm

New cards
38

Hornworts

spores release slowly, from top down, stomata,

New cards
39

Marchantiophyta (Hepatophyta)

liverworts

New cards
40

Lignin

substance in vascular plants that makes cell walls rigid

New cards
41

Xylem

Nonliving vascular tissue that carries water and dissolved minerals from the roots of a plant to its leaves, strengthen by Lignin(increased height)

New cards
42

Pholem

the vascular tissue in plants that conducts sugars and other metabolic products downward from the leaves.

New cards
43

micrphylls

leaves with a single vein

New cards
44

megaphylls

larger leaves with a highly branched vascular system

New cards
45

hetersporous

megaspore becomes female; microspore becomes male

New cards
46

seed plants

New cards
47

Lycophytes

includes club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts. These lack seeds.

New cards
48

phlyogenetic tree

represents a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships

New cards
49

3 domains of life

Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

New cards
50

prokaryotic cell

-small \n - ubiquitous \n -can be free living, symbiotic \n -unicellular may be free living \n -no nucleus or cytoskelton \n -very diverse

New cards
51

External features of prokaryotes, common shapes

- cocci- spherical shaped \n -bacilli- rod-shaped \n -spirilla- spiral and rigid cells

New cards
52

External features of prokaryotes

cell wall \n -imparts shape \n -peptidoglycann found in bacteria \n - gram positive gram negative

New cards
53

Cell walls of fungi are made of

chitin

New cards
54

Gram-positive bacteria

Bacteria that have a thick peptido glycan cell wall, and no outer membrane. They stain very darkly (purple) in Gram stain.

New cards
55

Gram-negative bacteria

Bacteria that have a thin peptidoglycan cell wall covered by an outer plasma membrane. They stain very lightly (pink) in Gram stain. Gram-negative bacteria are typically more resistant to antibiotics than Gram-positive bacteria.

New cards
56

Lipopolysaccharide

component of the gram-negative cell wall

New cards
57

fimbirae

used to attach to surfaces

New cards
58

capsule

protection and attachment

New cards
59

Staphylococcus

cluster of cocci

New cards
60

Streptococci

bacteria that form a chain

New cards
61

motility

flagella

New cards
62

taxis

basic behavioral movement towards or away something

New cards
63

Bacterial Reproduction(prokaryotes)

(asexual reproduction) binary fission

New cards
64

bacterial genetic recombination(prokaryotes)

transformation, conjugation, transduction

New cards
65

transformation

takes foreign DNA from the environment

New cards
66

transduction

movement of DNA between bacteria by bacteria phages

New cards
67

Bacteria phage

A virus that infects bacteria

New cards
68

Conjugation

bacteria exchange DNA by way of sex pili

New cards
69

Endospore

A thick-walled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions.

New cards
70

akanet

the resting state of some cyan bacteria

New cards
71

obligate anaerobes

organisms that cannot live where molecular oxygen is present

New cards
72

obligate aerobes

require oxygen

New cards
73

facultative anaerobes

can live with or without oxygen

New cards
74

nitrogen fixation

Process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia, transforming into a form plants can use

New cards
75

Ammonification

conversion of N2 into ammonium(NH4+)

New cards
76

Nitrification

Nitrifying bacteria convert ammonium into nitrite and then into nitrate.

New cards
77

Denitrification

process by which bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas

New cards
78

heterocysts

nitrogen-fixing cells

New cards
79

Bioflims

microbes attach to solid surfaces

New cards
80

Domain Bacteria

Proteobacteria,

Proteobacteria, \n Chlamydias \n Spirochetes \n Cyanobacteria \n Gram-positive bacteria

New cards
81

Chlamydias

-only intracellular parasites, gram-negative \n -lack of peptidoglycan \n - can become blind, STD

New cards
82

Spirochetes

Gram-negative, chemoheterotrophs, free-living & Parasitic

New cards
83

Cyanobacteria

Photoautotrophs, free-living and colonial heterocysts used to fix N2, no flagella (Anaebena)

New cards
84

Spirochetes

Gram-negative, chemoheterotrophs, free-living & Parasitic

New cards
85

phylum moniophyta

ferns, horsetails and whisk ferns

New cards
86

Horsetails

moist places, homosporous (one type of spore), 15 species, slicia cell wall

New cards
87

Whisk Ferns

scale-like outgrowths on the stem, homosporous, dichotomous branching

New cards
88

Seed Plants

Dominant producers

New cards
89

adaptations of seed plants

hetersporous, ovules, pollen, reduced gameophytes

New cards
90

advantage of reduced seed places

---

New cards
91

microspores

develop pollen grains

New cards
92

pollenation

eliminates the need for the film of water

New cards
93

Gymnosperms

pines, produce seeds in cones

New cards
94

cycads

resemble palm trees, grow today only in certain tropical and subtropical regions, bare naked seeds on sporophylls, large cones, flagellated sperm

New cards
95

Gingko Trees

fruit sold, fan-shaped leaves, air pollution, flagellated sperm, no morphological changes in 18 years

New cards
96

Phylum Gnetophyta

Ephedra, Gnetum, Welwitschia

New cards
97

welwitschia

2 leaves, deep tap root

New cards
98

ephedra

A substance derived from a shrub like plant used as a stimulant to boost energy and weight loss

New cards
99

Phylum Coniferophyta

conifers (pines, firs, spruces, bald cypress; Pinus), largest gymnosperm

New cards
100

Flowers consist of four floral organs:

carpels, stamens, petals, and sepals

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 96 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 43979 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(380)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard65 terms
studied byStudied by 92 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard165 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard447 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard249 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)