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behavioral economics

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130 Terms

1

behavioral economics

An interdisciplinary subfield that focuses on how psychology—particularly social and cognitive psychology—relates to economic decision making.

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2

behavioral genetics

A subfield of psychology that examines the role of genetic factors in behavior.

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3

cross-cultural research

Research designed to compare and contrast people of different cultures.

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4

culture

A system of enduring meanings, beliefs, values, assumptions, institutions, and practices shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

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5

evolutionary psychology

A subfield of psychology that uses the principles of evolution to understand human social behavior.

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6

interactionist perspective

An emphasis on how both an individual’s personality and environmental characteristics influence behavior.

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7

multicultural research

Research designed to examine racial and ethnic groups within cultures.

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8

open science

A movement to make research materials, methods, hypotheses, and data more transparent, accessible, and easily shared with researchers from other labs.

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9

social cognition

The study of how people perceive, remember, and interpret information about themselves and others.

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10

social neuroscience

The study of the relationship between neural and social processes.

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11

social psychology

The scientific study of how individuals think, feel, and behave in a social context.

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12

applied research

Research whose goal is to make applications to the world and contribute to the solution of social problems.

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13

basic research

Research whose goal is to increase the understanding of human behavior, often by testing hypotheses based on a theory.

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14

bogus pipeline technique

A procedure in which research participants are (falsely) led to believe that their responses will be verified by an infallible lie detector

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15

confederates

Accomplice of an experimenter who, in dealing with the real participants in an experiment, acts as if he or she is also a participant.

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16

confound

A factor other than the independent variable that varies between the conditions of an experiment, thereby calling into question what caused any effects on the dependent variable.

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17

construct validity

The extent to which the measures used in a study measure the variables they were designed to measure and the manipulations in an experiment manipulate the variables they were designed to manipulate.

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18

Correlation coefficients

A statistical measure of the strength and direction of the association between two variables.

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19

correlational research

Research designed to measure the association between variables that are not manipulated by the researcher.

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20

debriefing

A disclosure, made to participants after research procedures are completed, in which the researcher explains the purpose of the research, attempts to resolve any negative feelings, and emphasizes the scientific contribution made by the participants’ involvement.

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21

deception

In the context of research, a method that provides false information to participants.

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22

dependent variables

In an experiment, a factor that experimenters measure to see if it is affected by the independent variable.

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23

experiment

A form of research that can demonstrate causal relationships because (1) the experimenter has control over the events that occur and (2) participants are randomly assigned to conditions.

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24

experimental realism

The degree to which experimental procedures are involving to participants and lead them to behave naturally and spontaneously.

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25

experimenter expectancy effects

The effects produced when an experimenter’s expectations about the results of an experiment affect his or her behavior toward a participant and thereby influence the participant’s responses.

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26

external validity

The degree to which there can be reasonable confidence that the results of a study would be obtained for other people and in other situations.

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27

hypothesis

A testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur.

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28

independent variables

In an experiment, a factor that experimenters manipulate to see if it affects the dependent variable.

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29

informed consent

An individual’s deliberate, voluntary decision to participate in research, based on the researcher’s description of what will be required during such participation.

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30

internal validity

The degree to which there can be reasonable certainty that the independent variables in an experiment caused the effects obtained on the dependent variables.

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31

interrater reliability

The degree to which different observers agree on their observations.

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32

meta-analysis

A set of statistical procedures used to review a body of evidence by combining the results of individual studies to measure the overall reliability and strength of particular effects

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33

mundane realism

The degree to which the experimental situation resembles places and events in the real world

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34

operational definition

The specific procedures for manipulating or measuring a conceptual variable.

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35

preregistration

The practice of researchers reporting their research design, predictions, and plans for data analyses before conducting their study.

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36

random assignment

A method of assigning participants to the various conditions of an experiment so that each participant in the experiment has an equal chance of being in any of the conditions.

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37

random sampling

A method of selecting participants for a study so that everyone in a population has an equal chance of being in the study.

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38

replication

Repeating a research study to see if the results are similar to those found in the original study.

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39

subject variables

A variable that characterizes preexisting differences among the participants in a study.

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40

theory

An organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena.

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41

affective forecasting

The process of predicting how one would feel in response to future emotional events.

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42

bask in reflected glory (BIRG)

To increase self-esteem by associating with others who are successful.

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43

dialecticism

An Eastern system of thought that accepts the coexistence of contradictory characteristics within a single person.

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44

downward social comparisons

The defensive tendency to compare ourselves with others who are worse off than we are.

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45

facial feedback hypothesis

The hypothesis that changes in facial expression can lead to corresponding changes in emotion

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46

implicit egotism

A nonconscious form of self-enhancement.

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47

overjustification effect

The tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with reward or other extrinsic factors.

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48

private self-consciousness

A personality characteristic of individuals who are introspective, often attending to their own inner states.

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49

public self-consciousness

A personality characteristic of individuals who focus on themselves as social objects, as seen by others.

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50

self-awareness theory

The theory that self-focused attention leads people to notice self-discrepancies, thereby motivating either an escape from self-awareness or a change in behavior.

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51

self-concept

The sum total of an individual’s beliefs about his or her own personal attributes.

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52

self-esteem

An affective component of the self, consisting of a person’s positive and negative self-evaluations.

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53

self-handicapping

Behaviors designed to sabotage one’s own performance in order to provide a subsequent excuse for failure

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54

self-monitoring

The tendency to change behavior in response to the self-presentation concerns of the situation.

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55

self-perception theory

The theory that when internal cues are difficult to interpret, people gain self-insight by observing their own behavior.

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56

self-presentation

Strategies people use to shape what others think of them.

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57

self-regulation

The process by which people control their thoughts, feelings, or behavior in order to achieve a personal or social goal.

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58

self-schemas

A belief people hold about themselves that guides the processing of self-relevant information.

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59

social comparison theory

The theory that people evaluate their own abilities and opinions by comparing themselves

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60

sociometer theory

The theory that self-esteem is a gauge that monitors our social interactions and sends us signals as to whether our behavior is acceptable to others.

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61

terror management theory

The theory that humans cope with the fear of their own death by constructing worldviews that help to preserve their self-esteem

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62

two-factor theory of emotion

The theory that the experience of emotion is based on two factors: physiological arousal and a cognitive interpretation of that arousal.

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63

attribution theory

A group of theories that describe how people explain the causes of behavior.

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64

availability heuristic

The tendency to estimate the likelihood that an event will occur by how easily instances of it come to mind.

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65

base-rate fallacy

The finding that people are relatively insensitive to consensus information presented in the form of numerical base rates.

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66

belief in a just world

The belief that individuals get what they deserve in life, an orientation that leads people to disparage victims.

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67

belief perseverance

The tendency to maintain beliefs even after they have been discredited.

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68

central traits

Traits that exert a powerful influence on overall impressions

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69

confirmation biases

The tendency to seek, interpret, and create information that verifies existing beliefs.

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70

counterfactual thinking

The tendency to imagine alternative events or outcomes that might have occurred but did not.

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71

covariation principle

A principle of attribution theory that holds that people attribute behavior to factors that are present when a behavior occurs and are absent when it does not.

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72

false-consensus effect

The tendency for people to overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions, attributes, and behaviors.

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73

fundamental attribution error

The tendency to focus on the role of personal causes and underestimate the impact of situations on other people’s behavior.

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74

impression formation

The process of integrating information about a person to form a coherent impression.

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75

information integration theory

The theory that impressions are based on (1) perceiver dispositions and (2) a weighted average of a target person’s traits.

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76

mind perception

The process by which people attribute human-like mental states to various animate and inanimate objects, including other people.

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77

nonverbal behavior

Behavior that reveals a person’s feelings without words through facial expressions, body language, and vocal cues.

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78

personal attribution

Attribution to internal characteristics of an actor, such as ability, personality, mood, or effort.

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79

primacy effect

The tendency for information presented early in a sequence to have more impact on impressions than information presented later.

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80

priming

The tendency for recently used or perceived words or ideas to come to mind easily and influence the interpretation of new information.

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81

self-fulfilling prophecy

The process by which one’s expectations about a person eventually lead that person to behave in ways that confirm those expectations.

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82

situational attribution

Attribution to factors external to an actor, such as the task, other people, or luck.

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83

social perception

A general term for the processes by which people come to understand one another.

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84

ambivalent sexism

A form of sexism characterized by attitudes about women that reflect both negative, resentful beliefs and feelings and affectionate and chivalrous but potentially patronizing beliefs and feelings.

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85

aversive racism

Racism that concerns the ambivalence between fair-minded attitudes and beliefs on the one hand and unconscious and unrecognized prejudicial feelings and beliefs on the other.

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86

contact hypothesis

The theory that direct contact between hostile groups will reduce intergroup prejudice under certain conditions.

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87

discrimination

Behavior directed against persons because of their membership in a particular group.

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88

illusory correlation

An overestimate of the association between variables that are only slightly or not at all correlated.

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89

implicit racism

Racism that operates unconsciously and unintentionally.

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90

ingroup favoritism

The tendency to discriminate in favor of ingroups over outgroups

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91

ingroups

Groups with which an individual feels a sense of membership, belonging, and identity.

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92

jigsaw classroom

A cooperative learning method used to reduce racial prejudice through interaction in group efforts.

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93

modern racism

A form of prejudice that surfaces in subtle ways when it is safe, socially acceptable, and easy to rationalize.

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94

outgroup homogeneity effect

The tendency to assume that there is greater similarity among members of outgroups than among members of ingroups.

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95

outgroups

Groups with which an individual does not feel a sense of membership, belonging, or identity.

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96

prejudice

Negative feelings toward persons based on their membership in certain groups.

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97

racism

Prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s racial background, or institutional and cultural practices that promote the domination of one racial group over another.

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98

realistic conflict theory

The theory that hostility between groups is caused by direct competition for limited resources.

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99

relative deprivation

Feelings of discontent aroused by the belief that one fares poorly compared with others.

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100

sexism

Prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s gender, or institutional and cultural practices that promote the domination of one gender over another.

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