Animal Reproduction

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Sexual Reproduction

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Reproductive System

141 Terms

1

Sexual Reproduction

fusion of haploid gametes forms a diploid cell, the zygote

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2

Zygote

fertilized egg cell

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3

Zygote

can give rise to gametes by meiosis

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4

Egg

large, nonmotile female gamete

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5

Sperm

male gamete, generally much smaller and motile

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6

Asexual Reproduction

generated without the fusion of egg and sperm

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7

Asexual Animals

relies entirely on mitotic cell division

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8

Budding

new individuals arise from outgrowths of existing ones

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9

Fission

splitting and separation of a parent organism into two individuals of approximately equal size

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10

Fragmentation

breaking of the body into several pieces, followed

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11

Regeneration

regrowth of lost body parts

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12

Fragmentation and Regeneration

one form of asexual reproduction that has two steps

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13

Parthenogenesis

egg develops without being fertilized.

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14

Parthenogenesis

offspring can be either haploid or diploid.

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15

Hermaphroditism

each individual has both male and female reproductive systems

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16

Hermaphroditism

blurring the distinction between male and female; common among sessile (stationary) animals

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17

Hermaphrodites

can also self-fertilize

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18

Sex Reversal

maximizes gamete production

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19

Releasing gametes into the surrounding water

tends to result in more offspring

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20

Ovulation

release of mature eggs, occurs at the midpoint of each cycle.

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21

Sexual Reproduction

number of sexual offspring will remain the same at each generation because both a male and a female are required to reproduce

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22

Asexual Reproduction

daughters that will each give birth to two more reproductive daughters

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23

'“Twofold Cost”

asexual condition will increase in frequency at each \n generation

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24

Sexual Reproduction

may enhance the reproductive success of parents when environmental factors; change relatively rapidly

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25

Asexual Reproduction

expected to bemost advantageous in stable, favorable environments because it perpetuates successful genotypes precisely

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26

Sexual Reproduction

beneficial gene combinations arising through recombination might speed up adaptation

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27

Fertilization

union of sperm and egg

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28

Fertilization

an be external or internal.

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29

External Fertilization

the female releases eggs into the environment, where the male then fertilizes them

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30

Internal Fertilization

sperm deposited in or near the female reproductive tract fertilize eggs within the tract

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31

Moist Habitat

almost always required for external fertilization, both to prevent the gametes from drying out and to allow the sperm to swim to the eggs

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32

Shedding their eggs and sperm into the surroundings

fertilization occurs without the parents making physical contact

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33

Spawning

individuals clustered in the same area release their gametes into the water at the same time

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34

Chemical Signals

one individual generates in releasing gametes trigger others to release gametes

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35

Environmental Cues

cause a whole population to release gametes at one time; ex: temperatures, day length

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36

External Fertilization

not synchronous across a population; individuals may exhibit specific “courtship” behaviors leading to the fertilization of the eggs of one female by one male

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37

Triggering the release of both sperm and eggs

behaviors increase the probability of successful fertilization

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38

Internal Fertilization

enables sperm to reach an egg even when the external environment is dry

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39

Internal Fertilization

requires sophisticated and compatible reproductive systems, as well as cooperative behavior that leads to copulation.

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40

Male Copulatory Organs

delivers sperm

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41

Female Reproductive Tract

eceptacles for storage and delivery of sperm to mature eggs.

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42

Pheromones

chemicals released by one organism that can influence the physiology and behavior of other individuals of the same species

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43

Pheromones

small, volatile or water-soluble molecules that disperse into the environment ; active at very low concentrations

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44

Pheromones

function as mate attractants, enabling some female insects to be detected by males more than a kilometer away

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45

Internal Fertilization

produce fewer gametes than species with external fertilization, but a higher fraction of their zygotes survive because sheltered from potential predators

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46

Internal Fertilization

more often associated with mechanisms that provide greater protection of the embryos and parental care of the young

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47

Uterus

allows species to be nourished by the mother’s blood supply through a temporary organ, the placenta

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48

Gonads

organs that produce gametes; are found in many but not all animals

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49

Lack Distinct Gonads

he eggs and sperm develop from undifferentiated cells lining the coelom (body cavity)

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50

Spermathecae

sacs in which sperm may be kept alive for extended periods, a year or more in some species

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51

Cloaca

in nonmammalian vertebrates, it is the common opening to the outside of the digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems

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52

Cloaca

releases sperm, in species with lacking a well-developed penis

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53

True

animals often mate with more than one member \n of the other sex

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54

Female

plays a major role in determining the outcome of multiple matings

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55

Testes

produce sperm in highly coiled tubes called seminiferous tubules

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56

Epididymis

coiled duct where the sperm pass into

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57

Ejaculation

sperm propelled from each epididymis through vas deferens

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58

Vas Deferens

muscular duct where the sperm is propelled during ejaculation

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59

Vas Deferens

extends aroundand behind the urinary bladder, where it joins a duct from the seminal vesicle

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60

Ejaculatory Duct

duct from the seminal vesicle where it opens into the urethra

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61

Urethra

outlet tube for both the excretory system and the reproductive system

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62

Urethra

runs through the penis and opens to the outside at the tip of the penis

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63

Seminal Vesicles, Prostate Gland, Bulbourethral Glands

Three sets of accessory glands that produce secretions that combine with sperm to form semen

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64

Semen

fluid that is ejaculated

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65

Seminal Vesicles

contribute about 60% of the volume of semen

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66

Seminal Vesicles

produces thick, yellowish and alkaline fluid that contains mucus, the sugar fructose, a coagulating enzyme, ascorbic acid, and local regulators prostaglandins

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67

Prostate Gland

secretes its products directly into the urethra through small ducts

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68

Prostate Gland

secretes thin and milky fluid that contains anticoagulant enzymes and citrate

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69

Bulbourethral Glands

pair of small glands along the urethra below the prostate.

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70

Bulbourethral Glands

secrete clear mucus that neutralizes any acidic urine remaining in the urethra.

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71

Bulbourethral Glands

carries some sperm released before ejaculation,which may contribute to the high failure rate of the withdrawal method of birth control

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72

Penis

contains the urethra as well as three cylinders of spongy erectile tissue

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73

Arousal

erectile tissue fills with blood from the arteries. As this tissue fills, the increasing pressure seals off the veins that drain the penis, causing it to engorge with blood

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74

Causes an inability to achieve an erection

Alcohol consumption, certain drugs, emotional issues, and aging

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75

Glans

the head; has a much thinner outer layer and is consequently more sensitive to stimulation

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76

Prepuce

known as foreskin; fold of skin that surrounds the human glans which is removed if a male is circumcised

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77

Ovaries

female gonads that flank the uterus and are held in place in the abdominal cavity by ligaments

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78

Follicles

found in the outer layer of each ovary, consisting of an oocyte

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79

Oocyte

partially developed egg, surrounded by support cells found in the follicles at the outer layer of each ovary

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80

Surrounding Cells

nourish and protect the oocyte during much of its formation and development

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81

Oviduct (or Fallopian Tubes)

extends from the uterus toward a funnel-like opening at each ovary.

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82

Oviduct

cilia on the epithelial lining of the (blank) help collect the egg by drawing fluid from the body cavity into the oviduct

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83

Uterus

where the egg is conveyed by the cilia from the oviduct by wavelike contractions

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84

Uterus

think, muscular organ that can expand during pregnancy to accommodate a 4-kg fetus

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85

Endometrium

inner lining of the uterus supplied with blood vessels.

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86

Cervix

neck of the uterus that opens into the vagina

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87

Vagina

muscular but elastic chamber that is the site for insertion of the penis and deposition of sperm during copulation

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88

Vagina

lso serves as the birth canal through which a baby is born, opens to the outside at the vulva

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89

Vulva

collective term for the external female genitalia

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90

Labia Majora

thick, fatty ridges that protects the rest of the vulve

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91

Labia Minora

vaginal opening and the separate opening of the urethra are located within a cavity bordered by a pair of slender skin folds

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92

HYmen

thin piece of tissue that partly covers the vaginal open-ing in humans at birth, but becomes thinner over time and typically wears away through physical activity

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93

Clitoris

consists of erectile tissue supporting a rounded glans, or head, covered by a small hood of skin, the prepuce.

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94

TRUE

During sexual arousal, the clitoris, vagina, \n and labia minora all engorge with blood and enlarge.

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95

Sexual Arousal

also induces the vestibular glands near the vaginal opening to secrete lubricating mucus, thereby facilitating intercourse

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96

Spermatogenesis

formation and development of sperm; continuous \n and prolific in adult human males

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97

Seminiferous Tubules

where the cell division and maturation of spermatogenesis occurs

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98

TRUE

a single sperm, the process takes about \n seven weeks from start to finish.

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99

Oogenesis

development of mature oocytes (eggs); prolonged process in the human female

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100

TRUE

Immature eggs form in the ovary of the female embryo but do not complete their development until years, and often decades, later

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