AP Psychology Unit 4 Test Bank

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As you look at an apple, its reflected light travels to the eye. The rods and cones absorb the light and help transmit the information to the brain. This process best illustrates a. sensation b. top-down processing c. perception d. selective attention e. psychophysics

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1

As you look at an apple, its reflected light travels to the eye. The rods and cones absorb the light and help transmit the information to the brain. This process best illustrates a. sensation b. top-down processing c. perception d. selective attention e. psychophysics

a

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2

As the brain receives information about the lines, angles, and edges of objects in the environment, higher-level cells process and interpret the information to consciously recognize objects. This process best illustrates a. sensation b. bottom-up processing c. perception d. selective attention e. psychophysics

c

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3

The process of receiving and representing stimulus energies through the nervous system is called a. priming b. synesthesia c. accommodation d. sensation e. perception

d

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4

The detection and encoding of stimulus energies by the nervous system is called a. signal detection b. priming c. synesthesia d. accommodation e. sensation

e

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5

The process by which we select, organize, and interpret sensory information in order to recognize meaningful objects and events is called a. sensory adaptation b. parallel processing c. sensation d. perception e. accommodation

d

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6

Patients' negative expectations about the outcome of a surgical procedure can increase their postoperative experience of pain. This best illustrates the importance of a. transduction b. accommodation c. sensory adaptation d. difference thresholds e. top-down processing

e

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7

The effects of prior experience and current expectations on perception best illustrates the importance of a. accommodation b. transduction c. sensory thresholds d. top-down processing e. sensation

d

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8

Bottom-up processing involves analysis that begins with the a. optic nerve b. sensory receptors c. cerebral cortex d. feature detectors e. occipital lobe

b

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9

The ability to pay attention to only one voice at a time is called a. gestalt b. change blindness c. frequency d. the cocktail party effect e. sensory interaction

d

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10

In University of Utah driving-simulation experiences, students conversing on cell phones were slower to detect and respond to traffic signals. This best illustrates a. retinal disparity b. the phi phenomenon c. gate-control theory d. place theory e. selective attention

e

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11

Ohio State University pedestrians were more likely to cross streets unsafely if they were talking on a cell phone. This best illustrates the impact of a. place theory b. gate-control theory c. selective attention d. the phi phenomenon e. retinal disparity

c

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12

In one experiment, most of the participants who viewed a videotape of men tossing a basketball remained unaware of an umbrella-toting woman sauntering across the screen. This illustrates a. opponent-process theory b. inattentional blindness c. blind spot d. visual cliff e. figure-ground

b

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13

The process by which our sensory systems convert stimulus energies into neural messages is called a. priming b. sensory adaptation c. transduction d. parallel processing e. sensory interaction

c

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14

The minimum amount of stimulation a person needs to detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time is called the a. adaptation threshold b. difference threshold c. subliminal threshold d. absolute threshold e. change threshold

d

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15

Which theory emphasizes that personal expectations and motivations influence the level of absolute thresholds? a. signal detection theory b. frequent theory c. opponent-process theory d. place theory e. bottom-up theory

a

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16

Which theory can best explain why people respond differently to the same stimuli? a. signal detection theory b. frequency theory c. opponent-process theory d. the Young-Helmholtz theory e. bottom-up theory

a

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17

An exhausted forest ranger may notice the faintest scent of a forest fire, whereas much stronger but less important odors fail to catch her attention. This fact would be of greatest relevance to a. the Young-Helmholtz theory b. opponent-process theory c. signal detection theory d. frequency theory e. place theory

c

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18

A subliminal message is one that is presented a. while an individual is under hypnosis b. below one's absolute threshold for awareness c. in a manner that is unconsciously persuasive d. with very soft background music e. repetitiously

b

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19

News about the supposed effects of briefly presented messages on people's feelings of being thirsty involved false claims regarding a. parallel processing b. difference thresholds c. kinesthesis d. synesthesia e. subliminal stimulation

e

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20

If the just-noticeable difference for a 10-ounce weight is 1 ounce, the just noticeable difference of an 80-ounce weight would be _____ ounce(s) a. 1 b. 2 c. 4 d. 8 e. 10

d

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21

Guile's bag of marbles is twice as heavy as Jim's. If it takes 5 extra marbles to make Jim's bag feel heavier, it will take 10 extra marbles to make Guilio's bag feel heavier. This best illustrates a. the opponent-process theory b. accommodation c. the McGurk effect d. sensory adaptation e. Weber's law

e

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22

Weber's law is relevant to an understanding of a. absolute thresholds b. difference thresholds c. sensory adaptation d. sensory interaction e. parallel processing

b

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23

The principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion for their difference to be perceived is known as a. the opponent-process theory b. Weber's law c. feature detection d. sensory interaction e. the difference threshold

b

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24

Diminished sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus is known as a. sensory accommodation b. blindsight c. sensory adaptation d. transduction e. equilibrium

c

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25

Sensory adaptation refers to a. the process by which stimulus energies are changed into neural impulses b. diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus c. the process of organizing the interpreting sensory information d. changes in the shape of the lens as it focuses on objects e. increasing perception of a constant, annoying stimuli

b

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26

Sensory adaptation helps us to focus our attention on what kind of stimuli? a. familiar b. subliminal c. novel d. intense e. tranduced

c

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27

After listening to your high-volume car stereo for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates a. Weber's law b. accommodation c. sensory adaptation d. the volley principle e. transduction

c

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28

If we could stop our eyes from quivering as we stared at a stationary object, the object would probably a. vanish from sight b. stimulate feature detector cells located in the retina c. appear more brilliantly colored d. appear to change colors e. appear to move from side to side

a

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29

The constant quivering movements of our eyes enable us to a. focus the light on our retina b. adjust the size of the pupil c. minimize sensory adaptation d. perceive speed more accurately e. see in low levels of light

c

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30

Light-wave amplitude determines the a. intensity of colors b. color hue we experience c. firing of rods in the retina d. curvature and thickness of the lens e. parallel processing of a scene

a

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31

Human experience the longest visible electromagnetic waves as a. the color blue-violet and the shortest visible waves of red b. the color red and the shortest visible waves as green c. the color blue and the shortest visible waves as yellow d. the color red and the shortest visible waves as blue-violet e. the color black and the shortest visible waves as white

d

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32

The amplitude of electromagnetic waves determines the _____ of light a. absolute threshold b. brightness c. hue d. difference threshold e. wavelength

b

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33

Intensity is to brightness as wavelength is to a. accommodation b. frequency c. amplitude d. hue e. disparity

d

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34

Brightness is to intensity as hue is to a. amplitude b. color c. pitch d. wavelength e. frequency

d

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35

The adjustable opening in the center of the eye is the a. fovea b. iris c. cornea d. pupil e. blind spot

d

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36

The amount of light entering the eye is regulated by the a. lens b. iris c. retina d. optic nerve e. feature detectors

b

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37

Dilation and construction of the pupil are controlled by the a. optic nerve b. lens c. retina d. iris e. cornea

d

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38

Which process allows more light to reach the periphery of the retina? a. accommodation of the lens b. transduction fo the blind spot c. dilation of the pupil d. sensory adaptation of feature detectors e. focusing light effectively on the fovea

c

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39

Accommodation refers to the a. diminishing sensitive to an unchanging stimulus b. system for sensing the position and movement of muscles, vendors, and joints c. quivering eye movements that enable the retina to detect continuous stimulation d. process by which stimulus energies are changed into neural messages e. process by which the lens changes shape to focus images on the retina

e

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40

Objects are brought into focus on the retina by changes in the curvature and thickness of the a. rods and cones b. lens c. bipolar cells d. optic nerve e. cornea

b

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41

The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the rods and cones, is the a. fovea b. optic nerve c. cornea d. retina e. iris

d

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42

Which of the following is the correct order of structures light passes through in the eye? a. lens, cornea, pupil, retina, iris b. retina, lens, cornea, rods, cones c. corona, iris, pupil, lens, retina d. pupil, optic nerve, retina, lens, rods e. pupil, cornea, retina, lens, optic nerve

c

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43

Which cells for visual processing are located closest to the back of the retina? a. ganglion cells b. bipolar cells c. rods and cones d. feature detectors e. occipital cells

c

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44

The receptor cells that convert light energy into neural signals are called a. bipolar cells b. ganglion cells c. rods and cones d. feature detectors e. opponent processors

c

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45

Bipolar cells are located in the a. optic nerve b. retina c. blind spot d. lens e. cochlea

b

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46

The axons of ganglion cells converge to form a. the basilar membrane b. bipolar cells c. the auditory nerve d. the optic nerve e. the olfactory epithelium

d

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47

The most light-sensitive receptor cells are the a. ganglion cells b. cones c. bipolar cells d. rods e. iris

d

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48

Compared with rods, cones are a. more sensitive to dim light and more sensitive to fine detail b. less sensitive to dim light and less sensitive to find detail c. more sensitive to dim light and less sensitive to fine detail d. less sensitive to dim light and more sensitive to fine detail e. more sensitive to any light and less sensitive to fine detail

d

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49

Under very dim levels of illumination a. the iris expands to allow more light to reach the retina b. rods are more light-sensitive than cones c. fovea react to increase the sensitivity of the optic nerve d. feature detectors in the retina activate e. rods fire according to place theory to perceive the available light

b

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50

Which receptor cells most directly enable us to distinguish different wavelengths of light? a. rods b. cones c. bipolar cells d. feature detectors e. optic nerves

b

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51

Rods are a. more light-sensitive and more color-sensitive than are cones b. less light-sensitive and less color-sensitive than are cones c. more light-sensitive and less color-sensitive than are cones d. less light-sensitive and more color-sensitive than are cones e. more frequency sensitive and less amplitude sensitive

c

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52

The area of the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye is called the a. blind spot b. pupil c. visual cortex d. cornea e. lens

a

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53

If an image falls on the eye's blind spot, you do not detect it. Which of of the following best explains this phenomenon? a. An image that is not projected on the fovea will not be perceived b. The curvature of the lens must accommodate to the incoming light levels or the image will not be seen c. The image is not perceived because without receptor cells, transduction cannot occur d. When the eye stops moving, the sight would vanish e. Rods must share bipolar cells with other rods, which affects how an image is perceived

c

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54

The direct link between a single cone and a single _____ preserves the fine details in the cone's message a. rod b. ganglion cell c. blind spot d. bipolar cell e. cochlea

d

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55

Damage to the fovea would have the greatest effect on a. night vision b. peripheral vision c. visual acuity d. sensory adaptation e. kinesthesis

c

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56

Visual information is processed by a. feature detectors before it is processed by rods and cones b. ganglion cells before it is processed by feature detectors c. bipolar cells before it is processed by rods and cones d. feature detectors before it is processed by bipolar cells e. the optic nerve fear it is processed by ganglion cells

b

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57

The feature detectors identified by Hubel and Weisel respond to specific aspects of _____ stimulation a. vestibular b. visual c. auditory d. olfactory e. kinesthetic

b

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58

Which of the following types of cells are located in the brain's occipital lobe? a. rods and cones b. bipolar cells c. hair cells d. feature detectors e. cochlea cells

d

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59

When looking at the hands of a clock showing 8 o'clock, certain brain cells in the visual cortex are more responsive when the hands show 10 o'clock. This is most indicative of a. sensory interaction b. feature detection c. parallel processing d. perceptual adaptation e. accommodation

b

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60

Damage to the temporal lobe area of the brain essential for facial recognition produces a loss of a. perception b. signal detection c. transduction d. accommodation e. sensation

a

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61

Feature detectors pass information to other cortical areas where complex patterns are processed by a. bipolar cells b. supercell clusters c. the optic nerve d. opponent-process cells e. cochlear implants

b

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62

Feature detectors a. are retinal cells that allow you to see in dim light and are located in the periphery of the eye b. combine to form the optic nerve, which sends visual information to the brain c. are primarily located in the fovea d. are nerve cells in the brain's visual cortex that fire in response to specific edges, lines, and angles e. cause the lens to change its curvature in response to incoming light waves

d

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63

Supercell clusters are a. located in the spinal cord and conduct most pain signals to the somatosensory cortex in the parietal lobe b. connected to hair cells located along the basilar membrane in the inner ear c. photoreceptor cells, located in the retina, that combine to send information to the visual cortex d. teams of cells that fire in response to complex patterns, such as the human face e. combined messages from the semicircular canals and vestibular sacs in the inner ear that monitor head position and movement

d

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64

The ability to simultaneously recognize the color, shape, size, and speed of an oncoming automobile best illustrates a. sensory interaction b. kinesthesis c. parallel processing d. subliminal perception e. blindsight

c

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65

The ability to simultaneously process the pitch, loudness, melody, and meaning of a song best illustrates a. subliminal perception b. kinesthesis c. accommodation d. sensory adaptation e. parallel processing

e

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66

The human ability to speedily recognize familiar objects best illustrates the value of a. accommodation b. kinesthesis c. subliminal stimulation d. sensory interaction e. parallel processing

e

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67

When most people stare at a red square then shift their eyes to a white surface, the afterimage of the square is a. yellow b. red c. green d. blue e. white

c

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68

The fact that people who are colorblind to red and green may still see yellow is most easily explained by a. the Young-Helmholtz theory b. the gate-control theory c. place theory d. frequency theory e. the opponent-process theory

e

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69

Opponent-process cells have been located in the a. thalamus b. cochlea c. spinal cord d. visual cortex e. semicircular canals

a

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70

The pitch of a sound is determined by what? a. the frequency of the sound wave b. the amplitude of the sound wave c. the loudness of the sound wave d. the decibel level of the sound wave e. the vestibular level of the sound wave

a

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71

Brightness is to light as _____ is to sound a. pitch b. loudness c. frequency d. amplitude e. wavelength

b

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72

An 80-decibel sound is _____ times louder than a 60-decibel sound a. 2 b. 10 c. 20 d. 100 e. 200

d

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73

Sound wave vibrations are transmitted by three tiny bones located in the a. vestibular sacs b. semicircular canals c. inner ear d. cochlea e. middle ear

e

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74

The retina is to the eye as the _____ is to the ear a. auditory nerve b. cochlea c. auditory canal d. eardrum e. eustachian tube

b

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75

The coiled, fluid-filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses is called the a. eustachian tube b. auditory canal c. semicircular canal d. cochlea e. vestibular apparatus

d

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76

The basilar membrane is located in the a. middle ear b. auditory canal c. semicircular canal d. cochlea e. feature detector

d

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77

The mechanical vibrations triggered by sound waves are transducer into neural impulses by a. hair cells b. the eardrum c. the oval window d. the auditory cortex e. the vestibular apparatus

a

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78

Cones and rods are to vision as _____ are to audition a. eardrums b. cochleas c. oval windows d. hair cells e. semicircular canals

d

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79

The cochlea is a a. fluid-filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses b. fluid-filled tube that provides a sense of upright body position c. fluid-filled tube that provides a sense of body movement d. set of three tiny bones that amplify the vibrations of the eardrum e. specific area of the auditory cortex

a

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80

Movement of the hair cells along the basilar membrane a. allows us to sense our body's position and movement b. causes the olfactory bulb to send signals to the primary smell cortex c. initiates transduction and the transmission of neural messages to the auditory cortex d. stimulates the taste receptor cells and helps us distinguish between different taste sensations e. produces large-fiber activity in the spinal cord that closes the "gate" so we don't feel pain

c

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81

The discovery that high-frequency sounds trigger large vibrations near the beginning of the basilar membrane supports the _____ theory a. gate-control b. frequency c. Young-Helmholtz d. opponent-process e. place

e

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82

According to frequency theory a. most sound waves are a complex mixture of many frequencies b. high-frequency sounds trigger a wave of activity that peaks near the beginning of the basilar membrane c. the rate at which impulses travel up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of the tone being heard d. frequent or prolonged stimulation of a sensory receptor causes that receptor to become less sensitive e. we hear different pitches because different sound waves cause different parts of the nerve cells in to cochlea to fire

c

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83

Which theory best explains how we perceive low-pitched sounds? a. place theory b. opponent-process theory c. frequency theory d. the Young-Helmholtz theory e. gate-control theory

c

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84

The volley principle is most directly relevant to our perception of a. temperature b. color c. brightness d. pain e. pitch

e

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85

Frequency theory best explains _____, while place theory best explains _____ a. how we process red, green, and blue light; why we experience color afterimages b. how we perceive low-pitched sounds; how we perceive high-pitched sounds c. who we touch sensation involve more than tactile stimulation; why stroking a pressure spot leads to the sensation of a tickle d. how we are able to sense our body position without looking; how the vestibular sense functions e. how phantom limb sensations occur; how stimulation of the larger fibers in the spinal cord stop pain

b

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86

Receptor cells for kinesthesis are located in the a. fovea b. inner ear c. joints, tendons, bones, and ear d. olfactory epithelium e. auditory cortex

c

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87

Which of the following sensory receptors detect hurtful temperatures, pressure, or chemicals? a. bipolar b. hair cells c. nociceptors d. ganglion e. olfactory

c

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88

Which theory suggests that large-fiber activity in the spinal cord can prevent pain signals from reaching the brain? a. signal detection theory b. opponent-process theory c. gate-control theory d. frequency theory e. parallel processing

c

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89

Our experience of pain may be intensified when we perceive that others are experiencing pain. This best illustrates the importance of a. sensory adaptation b. accommodation c. top-down processing d. kinesthesis e. difference thresholds

c

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90

We tend to perceive more pain when others around us also report feeling pain. This research finding indicates that pain perception is affected by both biological and what other influences? a. genetic b. neural c. hormonal d. humanistic e. social-cultural

e

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91

Mr. Kim's experience of chronic back pain is influenced by his cultural background, his attentional processes, and nerve damage caused by an automobile accident. An integrated understanding of Mr. Kim's suffering is most clearly provided by a. Weber's law b. the phi phenomenon c. opponent-process theory d. a biopsychosocial approach e. perceptual constancy

d

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92

The sense of smell is known as a. subliminal stimulation b. the vestibular sense c. transduction d. olfaction e. the gustatory sense

d

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93

Which of the following would play a role in quickly alerting you to a gas leak in your home? a. vestibular sacs b. bipolar cells c. olfactory receptors d. feature detectors e. basilar membrane

c

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94

Olfactory receptor cells are essential for our sense of a. kinesthesis b. smell c. touch d. hearing e. equilibrium

b

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95

The area of the brain that receives information from the nose is directly connected with the limbic system. This connection may explain why smells are often involved in which of the following? a. pain sensations b. altered states of consciousness c. vivid memories d. subliminal perception e. retinal disparity

c

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96

Many researchers believe that pleasing tastes attracted our ancestors to energy- or protein-rich foods that enabled their survival. Such researchers are most likely a. behavior geneticists b. behaviorists c. evolutionary psychologists d. molecular geneticists e. neuropsychologists

c

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97

With her eyes closed, Sierra can accurately touch her mouth, nose, and chin with her index finger. Sierra's accuracy illustrates the importance of a. accommodation b. kinesthesis c. sensory interaction d. sensory adaptation e. feature detectors

b

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98

The semicircular canals are most directly relevant to a. hearing b. kinesthesis c. the vestibular sense d. paralle processing e. accommodation

c

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99

a perceptual set is a a. tendency to fill in gaps to perceive a complete, whole object b. readiness to perceive an object in an unfairly negative fashion c. tendency to view objects higher in our field of vision as closer d. mental predisposition that influences what we perceive e. conditioned response to a perceived event

d. mental predisposition that influences what we perceive

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100

in 1972, a british newspaper published pictures of a "loch ness moster." many people readily perceived photographs of a floating tree trunk as the partially submerged monster. this illustrates the powerful influence of a. feature detectors b. sensory adaptation c. interposition d. perceptual set e. sensory interaction

d. perceptual set

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