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What is a Hypothesis?

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1

What is a Hypothesis?

A testable] educated guess

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2

What is a Theory?

A claim based off research

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3

What is Dogma?

Unquestionable beliefs based in faith handed down by authority

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4

What is a Holistic Perspective?

Taking both culture and biology into account so that you can fully understand an organism

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5

What is Cultural relativity?

Suspending or rejected belief that your culture is superior] to understand another from an insider's point of view

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6

What is Linguistics?

Study of language and culture

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7

What is Archaeology?

The study of past cultures based off of artifacts] ecofacts

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8

What is Physical Anthropology?

study of the human body

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9

What is Cultural anthropology?

The study of human ways of life in a comparative perspective

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10

What is culture?

A set of beliefs] practices] and symbols that are learned and shared. Together] they form an all-encompassing] integrated whole that binds people together and shapes their worldview and lifeways.

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11

What is a Society?

group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction

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12

What is Enculturation?

Learning your home culture from birth

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13

What is Acculturation?

Learning another culture] being immersed in it.

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14

What is an Ethnic group?

A group of people who share a territory] and language] and religion] etc. and they identify as a group.

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15

What is a Pluralistic Society?

A society that has more than one culture and those cultures coexist

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16

What is a Subgroup?

A culture within an overarching culture

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17

What are Norms?

A standard set of rules in a culture/society

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18

What is Deviance?

Going against the norms

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19

What is Fieldwork?

When a researcher goes to a site to directly examine

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20

What is Emic?

Getting a insider's point of view

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21

What is Etic?

Getting an outsiders point of view

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22

What is Ethnocentrism?

Belief that your culture is better than others

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23

What is Xenophobia?

Fear of foreigners or other cultures

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24

What is Bias?

A preference or distrust of something

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25

What is a Stereotype?

A feature or attribute that is latched onto and generalized to an entire subgroup of people

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26

What is Midden?

Trash heap

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27

What is Feature?

Immovable] non-portable artifact that is part of a society

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28

What is Material Culture?

Anything that humans create as part of their culture] clothing] weapons] jewelry] tools etc.

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29

What is an Artifact?

Any object made or modified by human hands] or ancestors.

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30

What is an Ecofact?

Natural materials like animals] pollen] etc.

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31

What is a Fossil?

Impressions on the Earth of natural materials like bones.

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32

What is a Site?

The area of research

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33

What is Context?

The placement of an artifact in relation to other things] how an object may have been used.

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34

What is Matrix?

The soil surrounding skeletal remains] which is chemically tested in a lab

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35

What is Relative Dating?

Being able to tell if an object is older or younger than another

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36

What is Absolute Dating?

Uses the rate of decay to give a set range of how old an object is.

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37

What is Developmental Adaptation?

A permanent adaptation caused by the environment during growth.

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38

What is Physiological Adaptation?

A temporary adaptation

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39

What is Phenotype?

The physical expression of one's genes

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40

What is Genotype?

The entirety of the genetic code within the DNA

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41

What is Creation Stories?

A myth that depicts the relationship between humankind and each other] other animals] and the rest of the natural world

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42

What is Evolution?

The change in gene frequency in a population over time

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43

What is Natural Selection?

the process through which populations of living organisms adapt and change

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44

Who is Carl Linneaus?

The father of the system of categorizing organisms

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45

What is Analogous?

A feature that is similar in one organisms to the next and used in the same way

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46

What is Homologous?

Having a similar feature that’s used differently

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47

What is Species?

A group of organisms that can interbreed

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48

What is Taxonomy?

The modern study of classification for organisms

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49

What is Gene Flow?

Two populations sharing genes

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50

What is Catastrophism?

A proposal to explain the extinction of sabertooth cats and mammoths] was a biblical theory that the great flood wiped them out

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51

Who is Jean Baptist Lamarck?

The first person to study evolution.

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52

Who is Charles Darwin?

The scientist who discovered natural selection

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53

Who is Gregor Mandel?

Discovered the inheritance of genes

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54

What is the Law of Independent Assortment?

Genes controlling different traits are inherited differently

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55

What is the Law of Segregation?

Genes are inherited in pairs] they do not blend.

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56

What is a Gene?

The genetic code for a trait

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57

What is Alleles?

Variations on a gene

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58

What is Microevolution?

Refers to the change in allele frequency in a population

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59

What is Human genome?

The entire package of genes in human DNA

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60

What is Mitosis?

When a cell divides to form two identical daughter cells from the parent cell

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61

What is Meiosis: A special form of cell division

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62

What is Polygenic Inheritance?

When someone with light skin reproduces with someone with dark skin] sometimes you get a medium tone. This is not blending but multiple genes contributing to phenotype

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63

What is Gene Pool?

All the alleles that exist in a population

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64

What is Mutations?

Copying errors in genes that contribute a new trait that can be harmful and contribute to death] netural] or beneficial leading to better environmental adaptation

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65

What is Genetic Drift?

Randomly occurring death that can change the allele change in a population

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66

What is the Founder effect?

When a population gets split] and the smaller group does not possess the same gene frequency as the parent population.

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67

What is Cladogenesis?

When a population gets split nd th new population doesn’t have the same gene frequency as the old one

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68

What is Anthropoid?

means humanlike

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69

What is Prosimian?

Were named for their morphological similarities to most ancient primates

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70

What is a Hominoid?

All the apes

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71

What is a Hominid?

All the apes except the gibbon

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72

What is a Hominin?

Bipedals] Humans are the only bipeds still aliveTake field notes on something (basketball]sports games] etc)

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73

What is Diurnal?

Active during the day

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74

What is Brachiation?

Swings from tree to tree

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75

What is Nocturnal?

Active during the night

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76

What is Bipedalism?

Walking on two limbs

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77

What is Arboreal?

Lives in the trees

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78

What is Knuckle Walking?

Walking on your knuckles

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79

What is Terrestrial?

Lives on the ground

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80

What is Sexual Dimorphism polygamous v monogamous?

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81

What is Cooperation v Competition?

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82

What are Old World monkeys?

From Africa and the Eurasians

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83

What is the New World monkeys?

From the Americas

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84

What is Monogamy?

Same partner for several years; less competition] so less sexual dimorphism

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85

What is Prehensile Tail- who has it?

Can use a tail like an extra appendage] new world monkeys

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86

What is Polygamy?

Marriage between one person and two or more spouses simultaneously

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87

Chimps v Bonobos-

Leave areas to prevent inbreeding] intelligent] live in groups] long childhoods] 5 years

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88

Chimps v Bonobos-

Chimps are more aggressive] in Bonobos society females are dominant]

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89

What are some Communication Types?

Kissing] Smiling] Hugging] Vocalizing] Facial expressions

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90

What is Universal Primate Communication?

Smiling]Kissing]Hugging

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91

What is continental drift?

in the theory of plate tectonics] the movement of continents embedded in underlying plates on the earth's surface in relation to one another over the history of life on earth

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92

What is ardipithecus?

ne of the earliest genera of bipeds that lived in eastern africa. ardipithecus is actually divided into two species the order of which dates to between 5.2 and 5.8 million years ago] and the younger A. Ramidus] dated around 4.4 million years ago.

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93

What is Australopithecus?

The genus includes several species of early bipeds from southern and eastern Africa living between about 1.1 and 4.3 million years ago] one of whom was directly ancestral to humans.

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94

What are robust australopithecines?

several species within the genus australopithecus who lived from 1.1 to 2.5 million years ago in eastern and southern africa; known for the rugged nature of their chewing apparatus (large black teeth] large chewing muscles] and bony ridge on their skull tops to allow for these large muscles).

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95

What are gracile australopithecines?

one member of the genus australopithecus possessing a more lightly built chewing apparatus; likely had a diet that included more meat than that of the robust australopithecines.

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96

What are oldowan tool traditions?

The first stone tool industry began between 2.5 and 2.6 million years ago.

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97

What is lower paleolithic?

a period of time beginning with the earliest oldowan tools ] spanning from about 200]000 to 2.6 million years ago; also known as old stone age.

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98

What is a homo habilis?

"handy human". The first fossil members of the genus homo appeared 2.5 million years ago] with larger brains and smaller faces than australopithecines.

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99

What is homo erectus?

"upright human" a species within the genus homo first appeared just after 2 million years ago in Africa and ultimately spreading throughout the Old World.

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100

What are neanderthals?

a distinct group within the genus homo inhabiting europe and southwest asia from approximately 30]000 to 125]000 years ago.

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