Human Body Systems Overview

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What do carbohydrates do?

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1

What do carbohydrates do?

energy source, help control blood glucose and insulin metabolism, participate in cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism, and help with fermentation

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2

What is the digestive system?

a group of organs that work together to break down food

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3

State the five main types of nutrients

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals

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4

Define alveoli

Microscopic air sacs in lungs that are where diffusion (exchanges of gases) occurs with blood vessels.

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5

Define diaphragm

the muscular structure that divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity

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6

How does the diaphragm work?

diaphragm contracts down, air sucked in. diaphragm relaxes up, air pushed out

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7

What is the circulatory system?

The system that controls the steady movement of blood through the body

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8

What are the parts of the circulatory system?

heart, blood vessels, blood

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9

What does blood do?

Carries materials to cells and carries waste products away from cells.

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10

What are the parts of the heart?

left atrium, left ventricle, right atrium, right ventricle

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11

What are the three types of blood vessels?

arteries, veins, capillaries

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12

What are arteries?

Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart

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13

What are capillaries?

Microscopic, one cell-thick vessels that connect arterioles and venules

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14

What are veins?

Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart

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15

Which blood vessel carries blood back to the heart?

veins

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16

Which blood vessels carry blood away from the heart?

arteries

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17

How do veins regulate blood pressure?

The compression of muscles around them

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18

How do arteries regulate blood pressure?

They are thicker and more elastic to manage the high pressures

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19

What are the five main types of nutrients

Carbohydrates, protein, lipids, vitamins, minerals

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20

What does fibre do in the body?

Keeps the digestive system healthy

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21

What do lipids do?

help with moving and storing energy, absorbing vitamins and making hormones and make up the cell membrane

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22

What does protein do?

build and repair muscles and bones and to make hormones and enzymes

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23

What do vitamins do?

regulate body processes

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24

What do minerals do?

work with vitamins to ensure proper body functioning

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25

Define fibre

the indigestible parts or compounds of plants, which pass relatively unchanged through our stomach and intestines

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26

What does fibre do?

Keeps the digestive system healthy

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27

Where does digestion begin?

mouth

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28

what is the difference between chemical and physical digestion?

Chemical digestion is the breaking down of the bonds in food to convert them into organic molecules. Physical digestion is the mechanical breakdown of food.

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29

Define salivary glands

make saliva, which aids in digestion, keeps your mouth moist and supports healthy teeth

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30

Define the oesophagus.

25 cm tube connecting the mouth to the stomach

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31

Define stomach

muscular sac in the digestive system that breaks down material into a liquid-like material

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32

What happens in the stomach?

Gastric glands secrete hydrochloric acid and pepsin to break down connective tissue in food. The stomach stores food and releases it in small amounts as a substance called Chyme.

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33

define pancreas

a gland, situated near the stomach, that secretes a digestive fluid (pancreatic juice) into the intestine through one or more ducts and also secretes the hormone insulin.

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34

define gall bladder

organ that stores bile

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35

Define liver

largest internal organ of the body, produces bile to assist in breakdown of fats and assists in the metabolism of various substances in the body

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36

Define duodenum

first section of the small intestine (about 10cm)

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37

Define small intestine

The tubular digestive organ, where most food is broken down absorbed and into the organism, specifically, maltose down into glucose, due to the secretion of digestive enzymes, namely maltase. It is situated between the stomach and large intestine , with three sections: duodenum, jejunum and the ilium.

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38

What is the alimentary canal?

the whole passage along which food passes through the body from mouth to anus. It includes the esophagus, stomach, and intestines.

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39

What is the respiratory system?

This system keeps the body's cells supplied with oxygen & removes carbon dioxide as it is released from cells.

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40

What are the parts of the respiratory system?

Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, bronchioles

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41

Define nasal cavity

hollow space behind the nose

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42

Define pharynx

the membrane-lined cavity behind the nose and mouth, connecting them to the esophagus.

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43

Define larynx

the hollow muscular organ forming an air passage to the lungs and holding the vocal cords in humans and other mammals; the voice box.

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44

Define trachea

The windpipe--the passageway from the throat to the lungs

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45

Define bronchi

the passageways that connect your windpipe to your lungs. You have two main bronchi in your right and left lungs that divide and branch off into smaller segments, like tree branches.

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46

Define bronchioles

Small passages in the lungs that connect bronchi to alveoli

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47

Define lungs

Organ responsible for internal gas exchange

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48

Define alveoli

Microscopic air sacs in lungs that are where diffusion (exchanges of gases) occurs with blood vessels.

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49

How are the circulatory and respiratory systems connected?

The respiratory system exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide, while the circulatory system transports those gases throughout the body.

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50

Define excretory system

Filter water and fluids from the blood and remove waste products from the body

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51

What does the kidney do?

remove waste products from the blood and produce urine

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52

What does the skeletal system do?

supports and protects tissues, stores calcium and minerals, forms blood cells

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53

Define bone marrow

a soft fatty substance in the cavities of bones, in which blood cells are produced

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54

Study this diagram

Study this diagram!

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55

function of reproductive system

production of sex cells and hormones

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56

Name the parts of the male reproductive system

Testes, Seminal vesicles, Penis and Scrotum

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57

Name the parts of the female reproductive system

ovary, ovum, uterus, oviduct, vagina

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58

What do the testes do?

produce sperm and testosterone

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59

What do the seminal vesicles do?

produce a fluid that is high in fructose, a sugar that provides nutrients for sperm cells, as well as other proteins, enzymes, and mucus

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60

what does the penis do?

Surrounds most of urethra, releases urine and semen to the outside of the body.

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61

What does the scrotum do?

holds testes

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62

what does sperm do?

Delivers the nucleus from the father to the egg.

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63

What does the ovary do?

produces eggs

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64

What does the oviduct do?

transport eggs from ovary to uterus

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65

What does the uterus do?

receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum

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66

What does the vagina do?

provides a passageway for blood and mucosal tissue from the uterus during a woman's monthly period. receives the penis during sexual intercourse and holds the sperm until they pass into the uterus. provides a passageway for childbirth.

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67

What is an ovum?

human egg

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68
<p>Name number 1</p>

Name number 1

cranium

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Name number 2

mandible

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<p>name number 3</p>

name number 3

clavicle

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scapula

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ribs

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ulna

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radius

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pelvis

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coccyx

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metacarpals

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femur

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fibula

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tibia

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metatarsals

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phalanges

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tarsals

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patella

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phalanges

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carpals

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sacrum

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lumbar vertabrae

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thoracic vertabrae

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humerus

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sternum

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cervical verte

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93
<p>What are the parts of the excretory system?</p>

What are the parts of the excretory system?

Kidney, ureter, urinary bladder and urethra

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renal artery

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kidney

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ureter

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urinary bladder

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Name number 7

Urethra

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99
<p>Which number represents the renal artery?</p>

Which number represents the renal artery?

3

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100
<p>Which number represents the kidney?</p>

Which number represents the kidney?

4

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