AP Chemistry

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Electron Config

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Chemistry

395 Terms

1

Electron Config

The atoms orbital config

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Chemistry

study of what is in stuff reacting with other stuff

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Matter

The stuff

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Elements

pure substances that is a single element

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5

Compounds

pure substances that is two or more element

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6

Homogeneous

evenly distributed different mixture

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7

Heterogeneous

chemically bonded elements not evenly distributed

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8

protons or atomic number

How does the periodic table distribute its elements

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9

P+>e-

cation

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10

P+<e-

anion

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11

isotopes

difference of neutrons in the same elements

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12

What is most helpful when determining if a substance is pure?

Mass percent of the element

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13

avagadro's number

6.022x10²³=1mole

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14

mass spectrometry

A bar graph showing the different isotopes of an element. The total equals the element on the periodic table.

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15

percent composition

summing atoms weight and dividing each individual by the sum.

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16

empirical formula

Finding the ratio of atoms by making percents to equal grams by 100%=100g then turn to moles by timing m/g then dividing by the lowest atom and rounding others to nearest atom

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molecular formula

the actual composition of a compound by taking empirical formula with actual mass

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18

sig figs

The number of numbers that are relevant for a solution. (no leading zeros, sandwiched zeros are sig, yes trailing zeros if zero, yes none zeros)

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19

proton

+in the nucleus with a weight of 1.00727

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20

neutron

0in the nucleus with a weight of 1.00866

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21

electron

-in the ion cloud with a weight of .00055

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22

coulombs law (q=attraction)(r=distance)

(q_1q_2)/r^2

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23

S config

first config of a layer a circle 2

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24

P config

starts 2nd layer and second config of the layer a figure eight 3

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25

D config

third level of atom a d shape 2

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F config

last level of atom a shape

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27

photoelectron spectroscopy

peaks showing the number of electrons from shells and energy use

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28

Ionization energy (IE)

energy to remove an electron the (increase right and up)

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29

electronegativity

ability to attract electrons ( increase right and up)

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30

atomic radius/ radii

The distance of an electron from the nucleus (increase left and down)

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ionic bond

metal and a nonmetal strongest bond ∆en 1.7-4.0

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32

covalent bond

2 non metals

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33

metalic

2 metals

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34

hun's law

if atoms can fill out they would

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35

polar covalent

∆en.3-1.7

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36

non polar covalent

∆En0-.3

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37

intra molecular forces

forces that impact bonding

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38

perfect bond length

attractive forces = repulsive forces

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39

determining strength of bonds

1 coulomb's law, 2 bond energy, 3 bond length, 4 atom size, 5 # of bonds

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40

coulomb's law

(q1*q2)/r^2

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41

bond energy

Kj of energy (higher = harder)

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42

bond length

distance of atoms (closer=harder)

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43

atom size

size of atom (smaller=harder)

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44

# of bonds

1-3 bonds of an atom (more=harder)

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45

crystal lattice

alternating repeating atoms that are ionic

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46

metal

sea of electrons (made of same element)

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47

alloy

substitutional and interstitial (made of a mix of metals)

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48

substitutional

Two compound of relatively similar size switch atoms.

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49

interstitial

Two compound of different sizes combine between bigger atoms.

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50

formal charge (FC)

V-NB-b/2=FC determines which element is more neutral. (valence, non-bonding, bond e-,)

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VESPR

used to determine 3d aspects of an atom (valence, shell, electron, pair, repulsion)

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2 domains

linear sp 180˚

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3 domain

trigonal planar 120˚ or lp bent <120

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4 domain

trigonal planar 109.5˚, or lp trigonal pyramid <109.5 and 2 lp bent 90, 120˚

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55

resonance structures

structures that can change orientation while being the same compound. Usually carbon and is due to equal lengths.

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56

intramolecular forces

attractions within molecules

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polarity of intermolecular forces

The high difference in electronegativity for covalent and ionic compounds (ionic always)

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58

dipole

the attractions of a positive and negative polarity (greater difference = stronger dispersion forces)

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London dispersion forces (LDF)

In temporary fluctuating dipoles, electrons are unevenly distributed to one side. (Changes are dependent on temp decrease = greater IMF)

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dipole-dipole

attractions between oppositely charged regions of polar molecules

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dipole-induced dipole

The partial charge on a polar molecule induces a temporary partial charge on a neighboring non polar molecule or atom

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ion-dipole

the charge of an ion is attracted to the partial charge on a polar molecule.

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63

hydrogen bonding

strongest of the bonds (hydrogen is always positive)(N, O, F)

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Increasing IMF

Closer contact by greater size or bigger charge difference.

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Effects of greater IMF

greater Breaking point, higher melting point, greater surface tension, lower vapor pressure.

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66

Vapor pressure

The amount of free floating atoms based on temp.

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pv=nRt

Pressure x Volume = # of moles x Gas Constant x Temperature

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Pressure (P)

Measured in atmospheres STP 1 (KPA .00987 = atm 1)

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volume (L)

Measured in Liters (L) STP 22.4

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moles (n)

6.023*10^23 represented by mol The number of atoms present.

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71

constant (R)

.08206 atm

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temperature (T)

Measured in kelvin (K) average speed of atoms. (atoms can be going different speed)

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boil's law

as P increases V decrease pv=pv

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Charles' law

as v increase T increases. v/t=v/t

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75

Gay-Lussac's Law

as P increase T increases. p/t=p/t

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Avagadro's Law

as V/n = constant

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Dalton's law

total pressure= p1+p2+p3+...

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78

Assumptions of Kinetic molecular theory

gas particles have "no" volume

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gas particle feel no attractions

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constant motion

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81

Kinetic energy (Ke)

Speed of atoms

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82

mass

weight of an atom (different element and isotopes)

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velocity (Ve)

energy an atom contains. (temp changes)

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84

Ke= 1/2m*Ve^2

Mass decreases speed more velocity (increases by heat) making the atom go faster.

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85

Grahm's Law of Effusion

smaller things diffuse faster out of membranes.

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86

molar mass (MM)

grams / mol

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87

ideal gas deviations

an increase in deviation. Less volume(L) lowers pressure, bigger molecules (MM) higher pressure.

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88

ideal gas deviations

an increase in deviation. Low Temp, High IMF both decrease pressure

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89

molarity (M)

mol/L

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90

concentration

molarity is one way to calculate concentration (some #/ L)

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91

Miscible

completely soluble

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92

Imiscible

not fully soluble (ratios)

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93

solvation

break solute-solute and solvent-solvent interactions forming solute-solvent interaction

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94

exo

release energy

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95

endo

take in energy

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96

chromatography

separates two liquids with different polarity with paper and a liquid being polar (polar paper, higher is less polar)(nonpolar, higher is polar)

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filtration

The separation of a liquid and a solid through a medium.

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98

distillation

separating a liquid and liquid through evaporating (the end liquid is the distillate)

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99

larger molecules

larger = more polarizable, high IMF, higher Bp (c-c-c-c) smaller than (c-c-c-c-c)

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100

limits of models

Must assume some simplifications of complex issues. Some boundaries or limits identify. Not applicable to all situations.

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