A&P Exam 2

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What are the 3 layers of a vessel?

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Health

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1

What are the 3 layers of a vessel?

Tunica interna Tunica media Tunica externa

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2

What does the tunica interna do?

produces secretions

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3

What does the tunica media do?

contract SM for vasomotor control

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4

Where is the tunica Interna?

vessel lumen

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5

Histology of tunica interna

simple squamous

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6

What composes the tunica media?

SM, collagen, elastin

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7

What composes tunica externa of arteries?

collagen and elastin

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8

What composes tunica externa of veins?

elastin and SM

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9

How is SM regulated?

sympathetic neurons which controls vasomotor

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10

What is the bulkiest arterial layer?

tunica media

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11

What is the bulkiest venous layer?

tunica externa

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12

What does the tunica externa do?

anchors vessels to surrounding tissue

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13

What composes the tunica externa in large veins?

elastin

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14

What do large vessels have within the tunica externa?

network of vessels

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15

What is vasa vasorum?

network of vessels within vessels

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16

What do arteries do?

O2 rich blood away from heart

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17

What do veins do?

O2 poor blood to heart

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18

Blood flow pathway

Heart Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Venules Veins Heart

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19

What are the 3 types of arteries?

  1. Elastic

  2. Muscular

  3. Resistance

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20

What happens to artery diameter as it moves away from heart?

decreases

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21

What are elastic arteries also known as?

conducting

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22

What are muscular arteries also known as?

distributing

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23

What do elastic arteries do?

Shock absorbers that fluctuate with BP changes

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24

What do elastic arteries not fluctuate in response to?

vasomotor control

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25

What do elastic arteries prevent?

pressure surges from damaging artery walls

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26

What are examples of elastic arteries?

aorta subclavians common carotids

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27

What is arteriosclerosis?

narrowing of lumen which decreases artery flexibility

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28

What does arteriosclerosis produce?

aneurysms which can hemorrhage

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29

What does arteriosclerosis more likely affect?

smaller vessels with thin walls

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30

What is an aneurysm?

weakened vessel wall

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31

Which arteries are pressure smoothing to promote steady flow?

elastic

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32

Which artery type is most common?

muscular

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33

Which artery type responds to vasomotor control?

muscular

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34

Which artery type are pulse points?

superficial muscular

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35

What are examples of muscular arteries?

radial, brachial, femoral

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36

Rank arteries from largest to smallest

Elastic Muscular Resistance

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37

How many tunic layers do small resistance arteries have?

Very small?

Small = all 3

Very small = only interna and media

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38

What do resistance arteries respond to?

neural, hormonal, paracrine signals

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39

Why can resistance arteries not handle BP surges?

not elastic

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40

What are resistance arteries control points of?

perfusion

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41

What are the 3 types of capillaries?

  1. continuous

  2. fenestrated

  3. sinusoids

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42

What is the function of capillaries?

gas exchange with tissues

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43

What layers are in capillaries?

only tunica interna

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44

What is a network of capillaries known as?

bed

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45

What is microcirculation?

blood flow through capillaries

also microvasculature

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46

What do continuous capillaries diffuse?

water and small molecules

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47

What do sinusoid capillaries diffuse?

large molecules blood cells

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48

Rank capillaries from least to most permeable

Continuous Fenestrated Sinusoids

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49

What type of capillary prevents protein and blood cell loss?

Continuous

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50

What do continuous capillaries have for extra screening and protection?

specialized tight junctions

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51

Where are continuous capillaries found?

muscles, skin, lungs

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52

What do fenestrated capillaries have?

large lumens and pores

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53

What are examples of fenestrated capillaries?

Kidneys = filter blood Intestines = absorb nutrients Endocrine = hormone uptake and release

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54

What are sinusoid capillaries also known as?

discontinous

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55

What are the characteristics of sinusoid capillaries?

large lumens and irregular shape

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56

What is the speed of flow in sinusoid capillaries?

slow

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57

What are examples of sinusoid capillaries?

Marrow Liver Lymph tissue Endocrine organs

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58

Which has lower BP: veins or arteries

veins

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59

What happens to vein diameter as it gets closer to heart?

increase

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60

What happens at postcapillary venules?

WBC exchange

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61

What are the characteristics of postcapillary venules?

small, porous endothelium

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62

What happens when WBC cling to postcapillary lining and move out of tissue?

inflammation

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63

What layers are present in muscular venules?

all 3 layers

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64

Compare wall thickness for veins and arteries

Thinner walls in veins

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65

Compare lumen size in veins and arteries

Larger lumens in veins

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66

Which BV can accommodate larger volumes of blood?

veins

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67

What are veins also known as?

capacitance vessels blood reservoirs

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68

What do veins not have in their tunica media?

SM and elastin

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69

Why do veins have a low chance of bursting?

low BP

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70

How is vein flow assisted?

valves low resistance large lumen

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71

Where are valves very abundant?

limbs because they can counteract gravity

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72

What are venous sinuses?

Drains

Specialized flattened veins without SM

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73

What are the 5 mechanisms of venous return?

  1. Skeletal muscle pump

  2. Respiratory/thoracic pump

  3. Cardiac suction

  4. Gravity

  5. Valves

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74

How is venous return achieved through the skeletal muscle pump?

Exercises contracts skeletal muscle and pushes flow along

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75

How is venous return achieved through the respiratory/thoracic pump?

Inhalation increases volume and decreases pressure to move blood

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76

How is venous return achieved through cardiac suction?

heartstrings pull AV valves down to create suction and pull blood from IVC/SVC

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77

How is venous return achieved through gravity?

downhill return from upper body

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78

How is venous return achieved through valves?

inward foldings prevent backflow in limbs

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79

What are varicose veins?

superficial veins that bulge and twist in lower limbs

from weak valves and walls

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80

What causes varicose veins?

Heredity Excess weight standing too long strain

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81

What are hemorrhoids?

anal varicose veins

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82

What is anastomoses?

vessel merger

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83

What are the 3 types of anastomoses?

  1. Arterial

  2. Venous

  3. arteriovenous

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84

What are arterial mergers?

alternative routes for arteries to prevent occlusions

Brain heart Abdomen

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85

What are venous mergers?

alternative routes for drainage

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86

What are arteriovenous mergers?

Connect arterioles to venules to bypass capillaries

Fingers toes ears

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87

What is the function of arteriovenous mergers?

thermoregulation

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88

What are portal systems?

specialized routes of flow where blood passes through 2 capillary networks

Kidney Hypothalamus/ant pit

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89

What is perfusion?

blood flow

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90

What is hemodynamics?

principle of flow

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91

What is blood flow based on?

pressure resistance

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92

What is flow?

volume of blood in time (mL/min)

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93

What is perfusion measured in?

flow per tissue mass

mL/g/min

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94

What is total systemic flow equal to?

cardiac output

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95

What is pressure?

force blood exerts on vessel wall

mmHg

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96

How is pressure influenced?

  1. compliance (elasticity)

  2. flow

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97

Pressure is measured with what?

sphygmomanometer

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98

What is peak arterial BP known as?

Systole Ventricular contraction

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99

What is minimal arterial BP?

Diastole Ventricular relaxation

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100

What happens to pressure when compliance decreases?

increases (indirect)

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