Unit 1 Psych with Dr. M

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Psychological Science

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Psychology

this is for the unit one psychological science team taught course at Baylor University

132 Terms

1

Psychological Science

the scientific study of mental processes and behavior

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2

Empirical Method

method for acquiring knowledge based on observation, including experimentation, rather than a method based only on forms of logical argument or previous authorities

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3

Structuralism

understanding the conscious experience through introspection

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4

Who is associated with structuralism

Wundt and Tichener

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5

Introspection

the process of examining ones own thoughts and feelings

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6

Functionalism

focused on how mental activities helped an organism adapt to its environment

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7

Who was associated with functionalism

James and Darwin

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8

Psychoanalytic theory

approach to understanding human behavior that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors

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9

Who is associated with psychoanalytic theory

Freud

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10

Gestalt psychology

a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of its parts

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11

Behavioral psychology

describing behavior in response to stimuli

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12

Who is associated with behavioral psychology

Watson, Skinner, and Pavlov

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13

Humanism

investigate how people become happier and more fulfilled; focus on the basic goodness of people

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14

Who is associated with humanism

Maslow and Rodgers

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15

Cognitivism

How attention, perception, memory, problem solving, and language, often based on brain processes

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16

Who is associated with cognitive psychology

Chompsky

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17

What does APA stand for

American Psychological Association

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18

Biopsychology/Neuroscience

how biological systems give rise to brain activity

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19

Social Psychology

How people are affected by others

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20

Developmental Psychology

How people change from infancy to old age

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21

Clinical Psychology

Study of the factors that cause psychological disorders and the best methods to treat them

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22

Personality Psychology

Study enduring characteristics that people display over time and across circumstances

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23

Biopsychosocial model

perspective that asserts that biology, psychology, and social factors interact to determine an individual’s health

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24

What is the difference between a PsyD and a PhD

PsyD is the degree of a typical therapist while a PhD is that of a researcher

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25

Dissertation

defending your research in a formal review

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26

Critical Thinking

systematically questioning and evaluating info using well supported evidence

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27

Theory

well-developed set of ideas that propose an explanation for observed phenomena

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28

Hypothesis

testable statement about the relationship between two or more variables

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29

Verifiability

an experiment must be replicable by another researcher

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30

Predictability

implies that a theory should enable us to make predictions about future events

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31

Falsifiability

able to be disproven by experimental results

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32

Fairness

implies that all data must be considered when evaluating a hypothesis

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33

What does IRB stand for

Institutional Review board

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34

What is the purpose of the IRB

to review research involving humans to make sure it is ethical and not harmful

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35

Informed consent

process of informing a research participant about what to expect during an experiment, any risks involved, and the implications of the research, and then obtaining the person’s consent to participate

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36

Deception

purposely misleading experiment participants in order to maintain the integrity of the experiment

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37

Debriefing

when an experiment involved deception, participants are told complete and truthful information about the experiment at its conclusion

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38

If you ------ you must -------

deceive, debrief

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39

IACUC

committee of administrators, scientists, veterinarians, and community members that reviews proposals for research involving non-human subjects

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40

What does IACUC stand for

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee

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41

Descriptive Studies

research studies that do not test specific relationships between variables

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42

Correlational Research

research investigating the relationship between two or more variables

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43

Experimental Research

research method that uses hypothesis testing to make inferences about how one variable impacts and causes another

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44

Naturalistic observation

observation of behavior in its natural setting

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45

Generalizability

inferring that the results for a sample apply to the larger population

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46

Observer bias

when observations may be skewed to align with observer expectations

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47

Inter-rater reliability

measure of agreement among observers on how they record and classify a particular event

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48

Case study

observational research study focusing on one or a few people

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49

Surveys

list of questions to be answered by research participants allowing researchers to collect data from a large number of people

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50

Archival Research

method of research using past records or data sets to answer various research questions, or to search for interesting patterns or relationships

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51

Longitudinal Research

studies in which the same group of individuals is surveyed or measured repeatedly over an extended period of time

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52

Cross-sectional research

compares multiple segments of a population at a single time

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53

Attrition

reduction in number of research participants as some drop out of the study over time

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54

Correlation Coefficient

number from -1 to +1, indicating the strength and direction of the relationship between variables, and usually represented by r

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55

Positive correlation

two variables change in the same direction, both becoming either larger or smaller

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56

Negative correlation

two variables change in different directions, with one becoming larger as the other becomes smaller

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57

Confounding variable

unanticipated outside factor that affects both variables of interest, often giving the false impression that changes in one variable causes changes in the other variable, when, in actuality, the outside factor causes changes in both variables

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58

Illusory correlations

seeing relationships between two things when in reality no such relationship exists

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59

Conformation bias

tendency to ignore evidence that disproves ideas or beliefs

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60

Experimental group

the group that experiences experimental manipulation

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61

Control group

the group that does not experience the manipulation

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62

Experimenter bias

researcher expectations skew the results of the study

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single-blind study

experiment in which the researcher knows which participants are in the experimental group and which are in the control group

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double-blind study

experiment in which both the researchers and the participants are blind to group assignments

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65

Random sample

a subset of a larger population in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.

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Reliability

consistency and reproducibility of a given result

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67

Validity

accuracy of a given result in measuring what it is designed to measure

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68

P-value

statistical probability that represents the likelihood that experimental results happened by chance

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69

Statistical Significance

determines how likely any difference between experimental groups is due to chance

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70

Memory

set of processes used to encode, store, and retrieve information over different periods of time

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71

Encoding

the act of getting information into our memory system through automatic or effortful processing

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72

Storage

retention of the information

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73

retrieval

the act of getting information out of storage and into conscious awareness through recall, recognition, and relearning

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74

short-term/working memory

holds about seven bits of information before it is forgotten or stored, as well as information that has been retrieved and is being used

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75

episodic memory

type of declarative memory that contains information about events we have personally experienced, also known as autobiographical memory

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76

semantic memory

type of declarative memory about words, concepts, and language-based knowledge and facts

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77

episodic

what type of memory is associated with alzheimer’s disease?

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78

autobiographical memory

remembering specific events that happened over the course of your life

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79

encoding

input of information into the memory system

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80

storage

creation of a permanent record of information

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81

retrieval

act of getting information out of long-term memory storage and back into conscious awareness

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82

Two types of memory failure

forgetting and misremembering

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83

semantic encoding

input of words and their meaning

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84

visual encoding

the encoding of images

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85

acoustic encoding

encoding of sounds, particularly words

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86

recoding

taking the information from the form it is delivered to us and then converting it in a way that we can make sense of it

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87

effortful processing

encoding of information that takes effort and attention

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88

automatic processing

encoding of informational details like time, space, frequency, and the meaning of words

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89

Sensory memory

storage of brief sensory events, such as sights, sounds, and tastes

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90

rehersal

repetition of information to be remembered

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91

consolidation

the neural processes that occur between an experience and the stabilization of the memory

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92

Long term memory

continuous storage of information

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93

explicit memories

memories we consciously try to remember and recall

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94

implicit memories

memories that are not part of our consciousness (like opening a present)

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95

procedural memory

type of long-term memory for making skilled actions, such as how to brush your teeth, how to drive a car, and how to swim

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96

retrieval

act of getting information out of long-term memory storage and back into conscious awareness

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97

encoding specificity principle

The hypothesis that a retrieval cue will be effective to the extent that information encoded from the cue overlaps or matches information in the engram or memory trace.

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98

cue overload principle

The principle stating that the more memories that are associated to a particular retrieval cue, the less effective the cue will be in prompting retrieval of any one memory.

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99

recall

accessing information without cues

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100

recognition

identifying previously learned information after encountering it again, usually in response to a cue

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