Final bio exam

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  1. Animals are ________

  2. Animals have ________ matrices made partly of collagen

  3. Animals are ________ heterotrophs

  4. Animals are ______ and most have muscle and nerve cells

  5. Animal embryos pass through a ______ stage

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1
  1. Animals are ________

  2. Animals have ________ matrices made partly of collagen

  3. Animals are ________ heterotrophs

  4. Animals are ______ and most have muscle and nerve cells

  5. Animal embryos pass through a ______ stage

1.multicellular 2. extracellular 3.ingestive 4.motile 5. blastula

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2

Animals are closely related to _____ and______________

fungi, choanoflagellates

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3

Animals likely evolved from a ________ organism similar to _______

unicellular , choanoflagellates

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4

what is the difference between choanoglaellate and sponge choanocytes

The primary differences are that choanoflagellates are single-cell eukaryotes whereas sponges are multicellular.

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5

what group is echinoderms, chordates (humans) , nematodes, arthropods (bugs), mollusks, Annelid worms, flatworms

groups are Bilaterians (an animal having bilateral symmetry)

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6

what group is echinoderms and chordates ?

Deuterostomes ( anus first then mouth)

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7

what group is nematodes, arthropods (Bugs), mollusks, Annelid worms, flatworms

Protostomes (blastopore because moth firsts)

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8

what is cnidarians ?

radially symmetrical, aquatic, invertebrate animals that have a hollow digestive cavity opening to the outside by a single opening such as a jelly fish

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9

what does Porifera (Sponges) Sponges (Phylum Porifera) mean

Porifera (Sponges) Sponges (Phylum Porifera) are a group of simple aquatic invertebrates who are the first to become multicellar

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10

Sponges likely evolved from ?

Sponges likely evolved from colonial protists much like choanoflagellates

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11

sponges are ________, sessile _________

multiceller, animals

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12

choanoflagellates are sessile _____ and some are _____

protist and colonial

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13

what are the two questions to ask to compare multiceller and colonial cells ?

  1. are there more than one cell type ?

  2. can cells survive on their own ?

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14

what has more than one cell type and but can survive on their own ?

multiceller

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15

what has one cell type and can survive on their own ?

colonial organism

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16

what is the formation of the embryonic tissue layers in animals called ?

gastrulation is pushed in (The three primary germ layers) which means the opening into internal body cavity

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17

what do both Protostomes and Deuterostomes have in common ?

both have three germ layers ?

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18

Are bilaterians triploblastic?

All bilaterians are triploblastic, which means the presence of a third middle layer or mesoderm, from which most organs form

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19

what are the Embryonic tissue layers? and what do they do ?

Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm. facilitate specialization/complexity

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20

what does Ectoderm do?

Ectoderm gives rise to skin, integument, nervous system

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21

what does Mesoderm do?

Mesoderm gives rise to skeleton, muscle, connective tissue, gonads, circulatory system

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22

what does Endoderm do?

Endoderm gives rise to lining of internal digestive and respiratory organs (“guts”): lungs, stomach, intestines, liver, etc.

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23

what does hydra only have ?

hydra has only ectoderm and endoderm but no mesoderm

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24

what are Radially symmetric animals ?

have nervous system arranged into diffuse net and filter feeders or feed on easily-obtained prey

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25

what are bilaterally symmetrical animals ?

centralized nervous systems and cephalization and animals tend to be active feeders

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26

what are the Embryonic tissue layers mature into four major classes of tissue?

)Epithelial: cell rich such as epidermis 2)Connective: fat 3)Muscular: movement 4) Nervous: sensory

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27

__________ is a by product of bilateral symmetry

Cephalization which is concentration of sensory organs and development of brain in the head

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28

what is Adaptation in bilateral symmetry?

Adaptation for locomotion and feeding

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29

what is coelom?

Coelom is the main body cavity located in the body to envelop and contain the internal organs, digestive tract etc. It is a HOLLOW fluid-filled cavity serving as a skeleton

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30

What is pseudocoelom ?

a body cavity that is not a product of gastrulation and is not lined with a well-defined mesodermal membrane.

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31

In most animals the next stage is____________, the formation of embryonic tissue layers.

gastrulation

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32

what has no layers

Porifera

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33

what has two layers and name groups?

Diploblasts has two layers Cnidarians Ctenophores Placozoans

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34

what has three layers and what are they considered

Triploblasts and they bilaterians

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35

Radially symmetric animals have nervous system arranged into ______ ___, while bilaterally symmetrical animals have ___________ nervous systems and cephalization

radial =diffuse net bilateral = centralized

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36

radial animals are _______ feeders bilateral animals are _______ feeders

radial= filter feeders bilateral= active feeders

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37

what is the byproduct of bilateral symmetry ? And what does it mean WHAT is the adaption of it

CEPHALIZATION WHICH MEAN the concentration of sensory organs and development of brain in the head Its adaption is for locomotion and feeding

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38

what do animals have between the gut and muscle wall that facilitates locomotion

animals have fluid-filled body cavities (coelom or pseudocoelom)

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39

what groups are acoelomate (an invertebrate lacking a coelom)( PLANARIA)

Sponges, placozoans, cnidarians, ctenophores, and some protostomes (such as flatworms) are acoelomate.

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40

who are pseudocoelomate (organisms that have false body cavities.) (ROUNDWORM)

Some protostomes (such as nematodes) are pseudocoelomate

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41

who are coelomate (have a body cavity) EARTHWORM

Some protostomes (such as arthropods) and all deuterostomes are coelomate.

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42

what increases the complexity of an animal body plan

Body segmentation and body appendages

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43

what is the difference between Body segmentation and body appendages

Segmentation allows for specialization and improved control over movement and Appendages function in locomotion, feeding, sensing, and reproduction

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44

what animals have usually segmented and have appendages

Animals with complex behaviors (like insects or vertebrates)

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45

The earliest divergences are between animals lacking______ symmetry.

bilateral

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46

what is the Cambrian Explosion? (540 million) years ago

modern ( bilateral) groups appear in the fossil record during the Cambrian Explosion in short period of time.

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47

what are the Patterns of animal diversification

diversity increases over time but 5 mass extinctions occurs in land and sea animals.

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48

what are three learn facts about Animal phylogeny and patterns of diversity

1)Protostomes mean mouth first then anus and Deuterostomes mean anus first then mouth 2) bacteria is the biggest dominate group 3) Animals are the most successful group

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49

PORIFIA is a sponge that is non bilateral in animal group which means ? how is body supported ?

she has one germ layer, no organs, no coelom, no symmetry, no appendages or segmentation.

  • she has no anus or mouth -she grows like plants without a proper structure.

  • she multiceller tho and strong enough to regenerate.

  • she is strong bc she has support from connective tissue and internal skeleton (spicules)

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50

PORIFIA's lifestyle (SPONGE)

-most of them are marine -they are sessile as adults (larvae can drift or swim) -both sexual (free swimming gametes) and asexual (splitting) reproduction -she actively feeds by making green water currents with (choanocyte cells)

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51

what are diploblastic animals and how do they compare to sponges and three layer in protostomes and deuterostomes? what examples of them? what grade are they ?

Diploblastic (no mesoderm) animals have two embryonic germ layers,compared to the single layer in sponges and three layers in protostomes and deuterostomes. they have 3 groups( Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Placozoa)

  • DIPD are NOT monophyletic but the grade is BASIL

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52

what is diverse and more closely related to the triploblastic animals? ( hint jellyfish) what is its structure ? what 2 body types

Cnidaria (jellyfish) is radial, two germ layers (no meso) has organs, no COElom, no SEGmentation -Incomplete gut (gastrovascular) -waste product comes from mouth -tentacles to catch food -stinging is called CNIDocytes two different body types called ployp and medusa

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53

what is CNIDARIAN'S LIFESTYLE?

-MARINE -Medusa = free swimming -Polyp=sessle

  • predators by stinging prey.

  • sexual( float together and fertilize ) and asexualy

  • most are colonial cells

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54

what are the adaptive features of the coral reproductive strategy?

  • external fertilization -no mate choice -larger # of gametes (pre package) -coordinated timing( phase on the moon)

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55

Most animals belong to _______? what two groups does it belong too ?

Bilateria which includes the Protostomes and Deuterostomes.

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56

Protostomes are further divided into ________ and __________

Lophotrochozoa ( molluscs, worms, and lophophores) Ecdysozoa (arthropods (insects, spiders, and crustaceans) and the nematodes).

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57

how are protostomes traits shared with deuterostomes?

Bilateral Symmetry and Three germ layers

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58

what are Protostome synapomorphies

  1. Anterior brain that surrounds digestive tract entrance 2)Ventral nerve cord 3)Blastopore becomes mouth

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59

what are Variable traits among protostome?

  1. Presence of coelom (present ancestrally) 2)Presence of complete digestive tract (present ancestrally) 3)Presence and function of circulatory system

  2. Presence of appendages (not in “worms”)

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60

Protostome Groups: Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)

PLAT (FLATworm) body is sometimes long and always flat -NO coelom -incomplete gut (gastrovascular) -no circulatory system -live everywhere -some are internal parasites -free living species ( not directly dependent on another organism for survival)

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61

Protostome Groups: Annelids (Segmented worms)

Anne is a worm with a round segmented body -Body permeable (allowing water to pass through)

  • has tentacles for feeding -found in damp everywhere places -leeches are ectoparasites, other worms are detritivores or predators

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62

Protostome Groups: Mollusks (snails) smart

-Mollusks have modular bodies -all major organ system -shells -appendages

  • all have a muscular foot used for movement -internal organs made from in a visceral mass -have a radula ( a file-like feeding structure) Lifestyle

  • found everywhere different kinds of feeding ( filter, herbivores, detritivores) -some are hermaphroditic( both male and female reproductive organs)

  • some are different genders -Both internal and external fertilization occur, and sometimes parental care

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63

Protostome Groups: Roundworms (Nematodes)

nema is a round worm bc her body is round

  • different body sizes -Pseudocoelomate (no mesoderm) -Body covered in thick cuticle -found everywhere

  • can be parasitic and free living

  • most commonly found on earth

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64

Protostome Groups: Arthropods (insects)

  • Found everywhere -largest # of species -can be predators, herbivores, filter feeders or detritivores( feeds on dead stuff) -important mutualistic interaction with others -complex behavior such as parental care and eusocial system ( flock) -Fertilization may be external or internal.

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65

what are keys to Arthropod success? and why?

Segmentation and appendages because they are segmented and have paired appendages (jointed legs) Similar genes code for different specialized appendages ( intend antee legs) -compond eyes -exoskeleton (like fungi) chitin

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66

what deuterostomes traits shared with protostomes

Bilateral Symmetry and Three germ layers

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67

what are Deuterostome synapomorphies?

1)Radial Cleavage 2)Blastopore becomes anus 3) Coelom develops from pockets in mesoderm

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68

what are variable traits among deuterostomes

-Pharyngeal gill slits (present ancestrally) -Segmentation (present ancestrally)

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69

Deuterostome Groups: Echinoderms (starfish)

Echinoderms are extremely modified from wormlike ancestors

  • radial symmetry in adults (larvae still bilateral) -Internal calcified skeleton -Tube feet – appendages controlled by hydraulic water vascular system, used for feeding as well as movement -are oriented mouth-down -exceptional regenerative capabilities

  • feeding is diverse different niche mechanisms -external fertilization

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70

Deuterostome Groups: Chordates

Chordates include all vertebrates (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals) as well as urochordates (tunicates) and cephalochordates (lancelets).

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71

what do all chordates share a set of key synapomorphies?

  1. Notochord (for locomotion; see cross-section on bottom right) 2)Dorsal hollow nerve chord (for body control)

  2. Post-anal tail (for locomotion) 4)Pharyngeal gill slits (also in some non-chordates, for feeding + respiration)

  3. all chordates have segmentation (note myotomes)

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72

what 6 things do vertebrates have ?

  1. Internal rigid skeleton (bone or cartilage)

  2. Cranium that encloses a large brain

  3. Well developed circulatory, respiratory systems

  4. Divided digestive tract, pancreas, and liver

  5. Advanced sensory systems

  6. Paired kidneys

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73

facts about Vertebrate Diversity

most major group is fishes -paraphytalic group

  • One group, Tetrapods, moved onto land (remember Tiktaalik)

  • new adaptions

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74

what are the new adaptations?

Dessication resistance (avoid drying out) Gas exchange (breathing) Weight support ( limbs) Reproduction

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75

what are the best adapted vertebrates for life on land and why?

1)Amniotes are the dominant large animals on land 2)Ancestral amniotes already had walking limbs and lungs they include • Amniotic egg • Internal fertilization • Thick, keratinized skin with hair, feathers, or scales

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76

what is the difference between Anatomy and Physiology ? what does evolution have to do with it ?

Anatomy is the study of biological FORM or STRUCTURE and Physiology is the study of biological FUNCTION . Structure under evolutionary pressure is molded by natural selection

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77

What are the 5 basic survival challenges?

1)Maintain internal environment suitable for cellular function (homeostasis) 2)Obtain food 3)Obtain water 4)Obtain oxygen 5)Avoid being eaten/killed

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78

what are the 3 basic reproduction challenges ?

1)Produce gametes 2) Find suitable mate 3)Successfully complete fertilization

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79

what does constraints on animals mean and what are they ?

constraints mean there is limits on structures that can exist. there is many types of constraints such as physically, historically etc.

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80

what the physical and historic constraints?

physical limit(can prevent some forms from evolving): growth, gravity, oxygen, size capacity history (constrains animals to evolve structures from pre-existing structures using pre-existing genes) : ex. whales have to breathe air to live

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81

what does fitness tradeoff mean ?

that no animal can achieve perfect adaptation to an environment which is the process through which a trait increases in fitness at the expense of decreased fitness in another trait.

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82

what is physical constraint: surface area-volume relationship. The bigger an organism is the ____ the surface area is.

Volume increases more rapidly than surface area according to square/cube law. LOWER.

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83

what are the functional implications: heat transfer, digestion, gas exchange, excretion, etc in small vs big organisms ?

1)small animals have higher metabolic rate than big animals 2) small animals lose heat more than big animals 3) Large animals take more time to digest than small ones. 4) Gas exchange needs more surface area for more gas exchange.

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84

animal cells are organized into ________ and how much are they?

TISSUES. Connective= support, structural components, storage (fats, bones, blood) Nervous= signal transmission, sensory perception, cognition (which is cells stimulated by external environment) Muscle= movement (related to nervous and connective tissue) Epithelial=protection, absorption( internal, external lining tissue)

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85

Tissues are organized into_______ – a structure serving a specialized function. name examples

ORGANS. such as heart, lung, salivary gland etc.

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86

Organs are organized into _____ ______ – a set of organs working together to perform a broad function

organ systems which are circulatory, respiratory, integumentary, muscular, skeletal, reproductive, digestive, excretory, endocrine, lymphatic, nervous

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87

what are two Internal communication ( share information with each other) ?

Endocrine System (communication based on chemical signals (hormones) secreted by glands) and Nervous system (communication based on electrical signals (action potentials) carried by neurons)

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88

what does endocrine System do and what type of response is it ?

passes info through chemical signals (hormones) secreted by glands which is Important in coordinating development and reproduction, responding to stress, and maintaining homeostasis ( stress response)

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89

what is the nervous system and what kind of of animals use it?

communication based on electrical signals (action potentials) carried by neurons its important in in directing sensation, cognition, movement which ONLY with CENTRALIZED nervous system can learn.

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90

Nervous systems consist of __ types of nerve cells

3 types:

  1. Sensory neurons: which send and get info on animals environment or internal state.

  2. Interneurons: which proccess info from sensory nerurons and transmit to different body regions.

  3. motors neurons: which produce suitable responses.

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91

how does Nervous system organization varies?

  1. sponges don't have a nervous system. 2)Animals such as cnidarians have a diffuse net (doesn't need a brain)

  2. Most animals have a centralized nervous system and cephalization, with a brain and nerve cords

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92

Nervous systems work by transmitting _______ signals why?

electrical because Nerve cells are elongate and synapse with other cells and Neurotransmitter molecules propagate signals from one cell to the next.

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93

Sensory receptors detect environmental info for the nervous system ( name each purpose) -Mechanoreceptor: -Photoreceptor:

  • Chemoreceptor: -Thermoreceptor: -Nociceptor: -Electroreceptor:

  • Magnetoreceptor:

-Mechanoreceptor: pressure • Photoreceptor: light • Chemoreceptor: molecules • Thermoreceptor: temperature • Nociceptor: injury/pain • Electroreceptor: electric field • Magnetoreceptor: magnetic field

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94

what is receptors for sight, smell, taste, touch, hear?

sight=Photoreceptor smell=chemoreceptor taste=chemoreceptor touch= Mechanoreceptor hear= Mechanoreceptor

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95

_____ _____ concentrate receptors of one type to maximize effectiveness

Sense organs because Example: mechanoreceptors for detection of motion and gravity and The highest concentration of thermoreceptors can be found in the face and ears

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96

photoreception effects for differ types of organism ?

flatworms use it to tell day or night insects have complex and mosaic image veterbrates have single lens to produce sharp images but retina affects night vision thats why we need light to see.

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97

Animals may respond to sensory stimuli by_______

movement bc Movement in animals is accomplished by muscles – made of CONTRACILE cells initiated by nerve impulses. for locomotion muscles need skeleton to RESIST COMPRESSION such as : internal, external, or hydrostatic, -parallel bundles -Contraction shortens these fibers, resulting in movement

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98

Muscle contraction is a ______ force why? what is differ between triceps and biceps?

PULLING force bc Because muscles work by contraction, they can only pull and Antagonistic pairs of muscles, such as biceps and triceps allow for motion in opposite directions. biceps flex and triceps extends .

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99

why is skeleton contraction important ?

Without a skeleton contraction would merely result in shortening/collapse of the relevant body region and humans and vertebrates reply on hydrostatic support in the discs in spine.

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100

what are Forms of animal skeletons: hydrostatic skeleton?

Hydrostatic skeletons consist of fluid-filled cavities and The fluid resists compression when contraction of surrounding muscles occurs closed off cavity.

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