anatomy exam 4

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what are the functions of the nervous?

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1

what are the functions of the nervous?

communication and coordination in site of reasoning (brain)

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neurons

structural units of nervous system

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dendrite

motor neurons can contain 100s of these shirt, tapering, diffusely branched process

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axon

carry impulses away from cells

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sensory (afferent) neurons

carry nerve impulses, message from stimulus to brain

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motor (efferent)

carry nerve impulses message from brain to muscle

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what are the functions of myelin?

  • protects and electrically insulates axon

  • increases speed of nerve impulse transmission

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Myelin sheath

composed of myelin, whitish, protein lipid substance and segmented sheath around most long or large diameter axon

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node of ranvier

myelin sheath gaps between adjacent Schwann cells, sites where axons collateral can emerege

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Astrocytes

most abundant, versatile and highly branched glial cells. Cling to neurons, synaptic endings and capillaries.

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Function for Astrocytes

support and brace neurons, play role in exchanges between capillaries and neurons, respond to nerve impulses and neurotransmitters

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Microglial Cells

small, ovoid cells with thorny processes, migrate toward injured neurons

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Macrophage

can transform to phagocytize microorganisms and neuronal debris.

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Ependymal Cells

  • Range in shape from squamous to columnar

  • Ciliated - cilia beat to circulate CSF

  • Line the central cavities of the brain and spinal column

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Oligodendrocytes

  • Branched cells - 15 arms

  • Processes wrap central nervous system nerve fibers, forming insulating myelin sheaths.

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Satellite Cells

urrounded neurons cell bodies in peripheral nervous system insulating it

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Schwann Cells

surround all peripheral nerve fibers and form myelin sheaths in thicker nerve fibers. Similar function as oligodendrocytes.

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the cerebral hemispheres

form superior part of brain and account for 83% percent mass

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What are the surface marking for Cerebral Hemispheres?

  • Gyri: ridges, increased surface area

  • Sulci: shallow grooves

  • Fissures: deep grooves

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what are the 5 lobes several sulci divide each hemisphere into?

Gyri, sulci, fissures, longitudinal fissure, transverse cerebral fissure

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Insular Lobe

buried under portions of temporal, parite

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Longitude Fissures

separates two hemispheres

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Transverse Cerebral Fissure

separates cerebrum and cerebellum

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what are the3 regions each hemisphere is divided into?

Cerebral cortex of gray matter superficially, white matter internally,

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Cerebral Cortex

executive suite of the brain,

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conscious mind

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neuron cell bodies, dendrites, glial cells, blood vessels, no axons

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what are the 3 functioning areas of cerebral cortex?

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Each Hemisphere is concerned with what?

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What does the right hemisphere control?

Muscles on left side of the body

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What does the left hemisphere control?

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What does the conscious behavior involve?

The entire Cerebral Cortex

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Frontal lobe

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primary somatic motor cortex

located in precentral gyrus of frontal lobe

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somatotpy

all muscles of body can be mapped to area on primary motor cortex

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Premotor Cortex

helps plan movement. staging area for skilled motor activities. controls learned, repet

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Brocas Area

present in one hemisphere (left). motor speech area that directs muscles of speech production

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Frontal Eye Field

controls voluntary eye movement

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Cerebral cortex: Sensory Areas

areas of cortex concerned with conscious awareness of sensation

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Primary somatosensory cortex

receives general sensory information from skin, skeletal muscles, joints and tendons

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somatosensory association cortex

integrates sensory input from primary somatosensory cortex for understanding of object. determines size, texture and relationship of parts of objects being felt

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Primary auditory cortex

interprets information from inner ear as pitch, loudness and location

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Auditory Association area

stores memories of sounds and permits of sound stimulus

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Primary Visual Cortex

located on extreme posterior tip of occipital lobe. receives visual information from retinas

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Visual association area

surrounds primary visual cortex. uses past visual experiences to interpret visual stimuli. ex: ability to recognize faces

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Vestibular Cortex

Responsible for conscious awareness of balance

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Olfactory Cortex

involved in conscious awareness of odors

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Gustatory Cortex

involved in perception of taste

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Visceral Sensory Area

conscious perception of visceral sensation, such as upset stomach or full bladder

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Cerebral Cortex: Association Areas

receives inputs from multiple senses and send outputs to multiple areas. allows us to associate previous and current information

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Anterior association area

Aka prefrontal cortex, involved with intellect, cognition, recall and personality. contains working memory needed for abstract ideas, judgement, reasoning, persistence and planning.

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Posterior association area

large region. plays roles with recognizing patterns and faces and localizing us in space. involved in understanding written and spoken language. Wernicke’s area

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Lateralization

division of labor between hemispheres. hemispheres are not identical. some neural functions or specialized to one side of the brain or the other.

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cerebral dominance

refers to hemisphere that is dominated for language

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left hemisphere

controls language, math and logic

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right hemisphere

visual- spatial skills, intuition, emotion and artistic and musical skills

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Cerebral white Matter

second of the three 3 basic regions of cerebral hemispheres. responsible for communication between cerebral areas and between cortex and lower central nervous system. consists of myelinated fibers bundled into large tract

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Association fibers

horizontal running fibers that connect different parts of same hemisphere

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commissural fibers

horizontal fibers that connect gray matter of two hemispheres

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projection fibers

vertical fibers that connect hemispheres with lower brain or spinal cord

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Basal Nuclei (Ganglia)

this of the 3 basic regions

  • inner gray matter

  • each hemispheres basal nuclei include: caudate nucleus, putamen, globes pallidus

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what are the function of Basal nuclei?

  • influence muscle movements

  • play role in cognition and emotion

  • filter out incorrect responses

  • inhibit unnecessary movements

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The Diencephalon consist of what three paired gray matter structures?

thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus

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Thalamus

makes up 80% of diencephalon

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Thalamus acts as a relay station for brain and body sorts, edits and relays what?

  • impulses from hypothalamus for regulating emotion and visceral function

  • impulses from cerebellum and basal nuclei to help direct motor cortices

  • impulses for memory or sensory integration

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Hypothalamus

located between the thalamus and contains infundibulum

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chief homeostasis controls of hypothalamus

  • control automatic nervous system

  • physical responses to emotions

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What are the function of the hypothalamus?

  • regulate body temperature

  • regulates hunger and satiety in response to nutrient blood levels

  • regulates water balance and thirst

  • regulates sleep-wake cycles

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Epithalamus

contains pineal gland and forms roof of third ventricle and secrets melatonin that helps regulate sleep wake cycles

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What are the three brain stem regions?

Midbrain, Pons,Medulla oblongata

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what is the difference between the structure of Brain Stem and spinal cord?

similar in structure to spinal cord but contains nuclei embedded in white matter

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The brain stem controls what?

automatic behaviors necessary for survival

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The brain stem contains what?

fiber tracts connecting higher and lower neural centers

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What is the nuclei of the brain stem associated with?

10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves

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where is the midbrain located?

between the diencephalon and pons

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what is the corpora quadrigemina of the midbrain?

visual reflex and auditory relay centers

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What is the job of Pons?

to help maintain normal rhythm of breathing

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What does the medulla oblongata do?

blends into spinal cord foramen magnum, contains fourth ventricle and chloride plexus

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What is the functions of the medulla oblongata?

autonomic reflex center and function overlap with hypothalamus relays

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Cardiovascular Center (medulla)

  • adjust forcer and rate of heart contraction

  • vasomotor center adjusts blood vessel diameter for blood pressure regulation

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Respiratory center(medulla)

  • generate respiratory rhythm

  • control rate of depth of breathing

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What does the cerebellum contain?

thin cortex of gray matter with distinctive treelike pattern of white matter called arbor vitae

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where is the cerebellum located?

dorsal to pons and medulla

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The cerebellar processing plays and important role in motor control involving what?

  • muscle tone

  • coordination

  • balance and posture

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What is the limit system?

emotional brain that structures on medial aspects of cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. Also puts emotional responses to odors.

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What is Amygdala?

recognizes angry or fearful facial expressions, accesses danger and elicits fear response

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What is Cingulate Gyrus?

role in expressing emotions via gestures, and revolves mental conflict

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What is Reticular Formation?

important role in controlling autonomic functions, consciousness and alertness and functions during sleep and arousal from sleep

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Where is the reticular formation located?

central core of brain stems

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What are the connections of the reticular formation?

axonal connections with hypothalamus , thalamus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum , and spinal cord. the connections allows it to govern brain arousal

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What is the reticular activating system (RAS)?

  • sends impulses to cerebral cortex to keep it conscious and alert

  • filters out repetitive, familiar, or weak stimuli

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92

What is the EEG?

it is how we study the brain, record electrical activity that accompanies brain function and measures electrical potential differences between various cortical area

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Alpha Waves

8-13 HZ, regular and rhythmic, low amplitude, synchronous waves indicating and idling brain

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Beta Waves

14-30 HZ, rhythmic less regular waves occurring when mentally alert

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Theta Waves

4-7 HZ, more irregular common in children and uncommon in awake adults

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Delta waves

4 HZ or less, high amplitude waves of deep sleep and when reticular activating system is damped as during anesthesia. indicate brain damage in awake adult

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What is consciousness?

conscious perception of sensation that is voluntary initiation and control of movement. capabilities associated with high mental processing

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What are sleep and wake cycles?

state of parietal unconsciousness that a person can be aroused by stimulation

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What are the two major types of sleep?

  • Non rapid eye movement sleep,

  • rapid eye movement sleep- eyes oscillate back and forth

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what happens the first 30-45 minutes of sleep?

pass through the first two stages of non rapid eye movement sleep (NREM)

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