Science of Food Chem 131 - Test 2

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All of these are causes of foodborne disease outbreaks EXCEPT:

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1

All of these are causes of foodborne disease outbreaks EXCEPT:

Consumption of products cooked to the proper temperature

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2

Causes of food borne disease outbreaks are:

  • Consumption of raw animal products, like milk

  • Consumption of contaminated food or drinks

  • Temperature abuse that leads to microbial growth

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3

Local Outbreak

A contaminated casserole served at a local community supper

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4

Statewide/Regional Outbreak

A contaminated batch of beef sold at several locations of a grocery store chain leads to illnesses in several counties

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5

National Outbreak

Contaminated produce from one farm is shipped to grocery stores nationwide and sickens hundreds of people in many states

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6

International Outbreak

Contaminated packaged salads lead to hospitalization and death both in the United States and Canada

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7

Actions to stop a foodborne outbreak include:

  • Reporting the outbreak through the media

  • Throwing away foods involved in the outbreak

  • Closing restaurants or halting operations in facilities associated with the outbreak

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8

A manufacturer will only recall a product if it has caused a foodborne outbreak.

FALSE

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9

Physical

Which type of hazard would you encounter if you found a bone in your food?

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10

HAACP Principle 1

Hazard analysis applied to foods

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11

HAACP Principle 2

Determine the critical point

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12

HAACP Principle 3

Determine the critical limit

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13

HAACP Principle 4

Establishing monitoring procedures

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14

HAACP Principle 5

Establish corrective actions

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15

HAACP Principle 6

Establishing verification procedure

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16

HAACP Principle 7

Establishing record-keeping and documentation

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17

Which of the following are economic losses associated with contaminated products?

  • Loss of business

  • Product recall

  • Production losses

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18

When a chemical hazard is consumed in high doses, this is considered chronic poisoning.

FALSE

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19

Which of the following is NOT a measure to control for chemical hazards?

Metal detectors

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20

What are ways to measure the control for chemical hazards?

  • Employee training on safe handling and chemical procedures

  • Hygiene control

  • Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) measures

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21

Cell mediated food allergy

Celiac disease

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22

Metabolic food disorder

Lactose intolerance

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23

IgE-mediated food allergy

Peanut allergy

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24

Generalized shock reaction

Anaphylactic shock

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25

What antibody is associated with a true food allergy?

IgE

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26

The “Big 8” are responsible for 90% of IgE-mediated food allergies and include all of the following EXCEPT:

Corn

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27

The “Big 8” are responsible for 90% of IgE-mediated food allergies and include all of the following:

  • Egg

  • Crustacea

  • Tree nuts/peanuts

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28

Metabolic food disorder

________ occurs when an individual lacks the enzymes necessary to utilize a specific food component. A classic example is lactose intolerance.

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29

Which allergenic food source has the highest prevalence of food allergies in adults?

Crustacean shellfish

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30

Epinephrine

This should be administered as soon as there is indication an individual is experiencing a severe allergic reaction.

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31

Metabolic food disorders are associated with the inability to metabolize certain food components.

TRUE

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32

Anaphylaxis is a severe type of allergic reaction that involves two or more body systems (e.g., hives and difficulty breathing).

TRUE

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33

Food allergy

  • Involves immunological mechanisms

  • Total avoidance of the offending food is necessary

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34

Food intolerance

  • Immune system is not involved

  • Individual can tolerate a limited amount of food

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35

Which of the following is NOT a symptom associated with lactose intolerance?

Vomiting

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36

What are symptoms associated with lactose intolerance?

  • Flatulence

  • Diarrhea

  • Abdominal pain

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37

Which of the following is NOT a treatment option for lactose intolerance?

Start by consuming low levels of lactose and slowly increasing lactose intake over time

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38

What are treatment options for lactose intolerance?

  • Lactose-hydrolyzed milk

  • Consumption of dairy products with low lactose levels

  • Exclusion of all dairy products

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39

If you don’t have access to epinephrine, you can use an antihistamine such as Benadryl if you are experiencing severe symptoms in response to an allergic reaction.

FALSE

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40

Which age group is at the highest risk for fatal allergic reactions?

Teenagers

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41

Which of the following may trigger the development of peanut allergies?

  • Use of antacids

  • Dietary and environmental exposures

  • Frequency of ingestion

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42

Which of the following is NOT a way to manage food allergies?

Frequently eat at restaurants

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43

What are ways to manage food allergies?

  • Brand loyalty

  • Label education and diligent reading

  • Avoid the offending food

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44

When used as an ingredient, which of these foods has the highest number of recalls in regard to food allergy?

Milk

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45

Which of the following is NOT a way to manage food safety in the home in regard to food allergies?

Family members should all make different foods

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46

What are ways to manage food safety in the home in regard to food allergies?

  • Improved cleaning for removal of allergens from surfaces

  • Training and education related to allergens

  • Consider the separation of kitchen utensils

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47

Most consumers that believe to have food allergies have sought a professional diagnosis.

FALSE

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48

192

A bacterial population has an initial count of 3 organisms and a generation time of 20 minutes. How many organisms will there be after 2 hours under optimum conditions for growth?

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49

Louis Pasteur

Demonstrated that air was not the cause of spoilage

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50

Anton Van Leeuwenhoek

Developed the first microscope

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51

Nicholas Appert

Father of canning

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52

Robert Koch

Received the Nobel Prize in 1905 for demonstrating that a particular organism is responsible for a disease and that it can be transmitted from one animal to another

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53

Viruses replicate in food and living cells.

FALSE

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54

Binary Fission

Process by which bacteria reproduces itself

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55

1st Step of Virus Reproduction Cycle

Food carries virus to intestinal tract

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56

2nd Step of Virus Reproduction Cycle

Virus attaches to cell

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57

3rd Step of Virus Reproduction Cycle

Virus injects its genetic material into the host cell

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58

4th Step of Virus Reproduction Cycle

Virus replicates and new particles burst out of the cell

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59

All fungi produce mycotoxins.

FALSE

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60

Aflatoxin is found in:

  • Peanuts

  • Maize

  • Cottonseeds

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61

Which of the following outcomes is not the result of chronic exposure to low levels of mycotoxins?

Diarrhea

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62

What are the outcomes of chronic exposure to low levels of mycotoxins?

  • Tumor formation

  • Immunosuppression

  • Growth retardation

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63

25

What is the lower limit used as criteria for countable microbial colonies on media plates?

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64

Fermented products typically have a high pH.

FALSE

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65

How can water activity be determined?

By measuring the vapor pressure of water above a food and comparing to that of pure water.

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66

Microorganisms are capable of producing which of the following:

  • Toxins

  • Alchohol

  • Co2

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67

Under optimal conditions, which of the following grows fastest?

Bacteria

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68

Which of the following are factors that affect the growth of microorganisms?

  • Moisture

  • Temperature

  • Time

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69

Which of the following usually requires the highest pH (lowest acid level) for growth?

Bacteria

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70

Pathogenic bacteria requires an Aw greater than ______ for growth?

0.85

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71

What is the water activity of 100 g of a certain brand of mayonnaise that contain 77.6% oil, 1.74% salt and 17.2% moisture?

Cannot be calculated with given information

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72

Which of the following products or practices is NOT associated with botulism?

Time temperature abuse

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73

Which of the following products or practices is associated with botulism?

  • Home food storage practices, including storing garlic in oil

  • Honey

  • Home and commercially canned products

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74

Which of the following microorganisms produces toxins that do not commonly lead to death, but causes symptoms such as abdominal pain, cramps, vomiting, a low body temperature?

Staphylococcus aureus

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75

Which of the following is an illness that causes muscle paralysis with higher rates of death within those who are affected?

Clostridium botulinum

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76

Diarrheal type

  • Oftentimes resembles Clostridium perfringens

  • An infection in the GI tract that leads to an intoxication

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77

Emetic type

  • Oftentimes resembles Staphylococcus aureus

  • The microorganism grows and produces the toxin in the food which then leads to intoxication upon consumption

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78

140°F (60°C)

What is the temperature at which you should keep food hot after cooking in order for it to be safe?

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79

It is safe for infant to consume honey.

FALSE

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80

Clostridium botulinum is a sporeforming bacterium that will not germinate at a pH of:

<4.8

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81

If you have a dry food product (like Cheetos), it is best to store them in environments with high relative humidity.

FALSE

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82

Listeriosis is associated with:

  • Lunch meat

  • Still births

  • Unpasteurized milk

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83

Consuming raw oysters will put you at risk of foodborne illness caused by __________.

Vibrio vulnificus

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84

Which product is associated most with illnesses caused by Salmonella enterica?

Poultry

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85

Mary Mallon was the first individual to be identified as a carrier of typhoid fever, without showing symptoms.

TRUE

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86

Which individuals are at risk for developing Listeriosis?

  • Elderly

  • Pregnant women

  • Immunocompromised

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87

The strain of Salmonella called Salmonella Typhi causes gastroenteritis.

FALSE

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88

Which product or practice is NOT usually associated with Campylobacter?

Eggs

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89

What products or practices are usually associated with Campylobacter?

  • Water

  • Raw and undercooked poultry

  • Vegetables

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90

Which of these bacterial infections causes the greatest number of hospitalizations in the U.S.?

Salmonella spp.

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91

Campylobacter has a high mortality rate and a low morbidity rate.

FALSE

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92

Which type of Vibrio is associated with natural disaster and is waterborne?

Vibrio cholerae

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93

Which of the following causes toxin-mediated infections?

  • Clostridium botulinum

  • E.coli

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94

Preventing foodborne illnesses require:

  • Proper cooking

  • Good personal hygiene

  • Avoid cross-contamination

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95

Which of these two organisms may cause bloody diarrhea?

Shigella and Shiga-like toxin producing E. coli

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96

All E. coli strains are pathogenic and can cause illnesses in humans.

FALSE

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97

Which virus causes the most cases of foodborne disease?

Norovirus

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98

E.coli

Non-sporeforming and can be either pathogenic or non-pathogenic

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99

Shigella

Mesophilic organism that is associated with most commonly infecting children under the age of 5

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100

Hepatitis A Virus

Causes jaundice

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