AP Psychology Review

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Abnormal Defined

3D's, Distress, Deviation, Dysfunction

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Rosenhan Study

Sent pseudopatients into mental hospitals claiming to be hearing voices, then they stopped showing symptoms. Eye opener on treatment in mental hospitals

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DSM

5

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder

an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

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Phobias

specific irrational fears, largely conditioned

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Claustraphobia

fear of enclosed spaces

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Panic Attacks

overwhelming feelings of worry and dread, general feeling that the worst is going to happen

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OCD

obsessive compulsive disorder

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an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)

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Somatoform Disorders

Bodily complaints with mental cause

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Conversion Disorder

physical symptoms due to physiological issues

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Hypochondriasis

constant preoccupation with health, think the worst is happening and can't be convinced otherwise

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Anna O Case Study

glove anesthesia

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Dissociative Disorders

split away from normal reality

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Dissociative Amnesia

Bury trauma deep in unconcious

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Dissociative Fugue

Amnesia accompanied with active fleeing (battered woman syndrome)

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DID/MPD

Dissociative Identity Disorder

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Clinical Depression

general sense of helplessness, hopelessness, may have suicidal thoughts

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Bipolar/Manic Depression

Manic phase of euphoria and high energy levels coupled with periods of deep depression

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Seasonal Affective Disorder

correlation between serotonin/access to sunlight and elevation of mood

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Schizophrenia

disorder of thinking, non sequitur speech/ word salad, delusions, hallucinations, reality break

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Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Addition of behavior (delusions of grandeur, persecution, word salad, etc)

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Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Absence of a normal/positive behavior

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Catatonic Schizophrenia

(worst of the worst) fixed, rigid posture, violent mood swings

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Simple/ Residual Schizophrenia

Stay in home/isolates

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Hebephrenic

inappropriate behavior, sexual deviation/voyeurism

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Dementia

a condition characterized by progressive or persistent loss of intellectual functioning, especially with impairment of memory and abstract thinking, and often with personality change, resulting from organic disease of the brain.

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Paranoid

delusions of persecution and grandeur

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Anti

Social Personality Disorder

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Psychopath Personality

condition marked by superficial charm, dishonesty, manipulativeness, self

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Sociopath Personality

a person with a personality disorder manifesting itself in extreme antisocial attitudes and behavior and a lack of conscience.

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Narcissistic Personality Disorder

characterized by a grandiose sense of self

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Passive

Aggressive Personality Disorder

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Histrionic Personality Disorder

excessive emotionality and attention seeking

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Schizoid Personality Disorder

a personality disorder characterized by persistent avoidance of social relationships and little expression of emotion

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Avoidant Personality Disorder

A personality disorder characterized by consistent discomfort and restraint in social situations, overwhelming feelings of inadequacy, and extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation.

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Psychoanalytic Therapy

this therapy approach uses various methods to help a patient become aware of his or her unconscious motives and to gain insight into the emotional issues and conflicts that are causing difficulties

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Catharsis

outpouring of emotion

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Free Association

a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing

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Dream Analysis

the therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the client's dreams

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Manifest Content

the actual plot of the dream

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Latent Content

the underlying meaning of a dream

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Resistance

patient avoids talking about a topic

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Transference

the patient transfers emotions from another situation onto a therapist

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Counter

Transference

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Carl Rogers

Humanisic; self

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Abraham Maslow

humanistic psychology; hierarchy of needs

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Humanistic Therapy

focuses on the value, dignity, and worth of each person; holds that healthy living is the result of realizing one's full potential

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Free Will

humans are good and can make decisions best for ourselves

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Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher

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Client

Centered Therapy

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Unconditional Positive Regard

according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person

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Behavioral Therapy

focuses on problematic behaviors

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Systematic Desensitization

(counter conditioning) gradual, step by step process towards actual confrontation of object of fear

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Implosion

imagining worst

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Flooding

putting someone in a very fearful situation to try to remediate fear

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Token Economy

Operant Conditioning

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Mary Cover Jones

"mother of behavior therapy"; used classical conditioning to help "Peter" overcome fear of rabbits

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Baby Albert Study

Brought the baby into a room with the stuffed animal

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Whenever the baby grabbed the animal, Watson made loud noises to eventually make the baby fear the stuffed animal because he would associate loud noises with the stuffed animal

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Aversion

associate a behavior with something negative, now you don't perform behavior

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Cognitive Therapy

focuses on problematic/irrational thinking (change the thought process of patient) (Aaron Beck)

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RET

rational emotive therapy

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Group Therapy

group largely has affliction in common, gets people to talk, feel less alone (AA, couples therapy, etc)

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Role Reversal

Each person acts like the other person in the group, can have very positive or very negative outcomes

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Physical Therapy

rehabilitation that focuses on restoring physical function and preventing disability

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Lobotomy

a psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion

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ECT

electroconvulsive therapy; a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient (shock therapy)

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Anti

Psychotic Drugs

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Anti

Anxiety Drugs

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Common Side Effects of Anti

Psychotic Drugs

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Anti

Depressant Drugs

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SSRI's

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

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AntiManic Drugs

Used to treat bipolar disorder (lithium carbonate)

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Psychologist

A scientist who studies the mind and behavior of humans and animals

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Psychiatrist

medical doctor who has specialized in treating psychological disorders

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Sigmund Freud (1856

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Wilhelm Wundt (1832

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John B. Watson (1878

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B. F. Skinner (1904

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Gestalt Psychology

Closure principles, looking at something as a whole

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Phi Phenomenon

sequential pictures create the illusion of movement

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Extraneous/Confounding Variable

uncontrolled variable known to exert an influence on the DV

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Experiment

looks for a cause and effect relationship using variables and control groups

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Naturalistic Observation

observes behavior in natural habitat

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Survey

Correlational study, see if there is a meaningful relationship, not cause and effect, scatterplot

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Case Study

study of one person, gets in depth info, rare cases

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Random Assignment

(control technique) assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups

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Random Selection

select from population so that everybody has an equal chance of getting into survey

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Experimental Group

gets manipulation (IV)

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Control Group

Not manipulated, placebo

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Experimenter Bias

researcher expectations skew the results of the study

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Double Blind Study

An experiment in which neither the participant nor the researcher knows whether the participant has received the treatment or the placebo

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Sample Bias

Population isn't defined, sample isn't drawn randomly

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Social Desirability Bias

Subjects give answers that they believe are socially acceptable

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Replication

repeating study to ensure reliability

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Ethics Examples

Voluntary, No Harmful Procedures, No Deception, Debriefing, International Review Board (IRB) Approval

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Aptitude Tests

testing general knowledge as a way to determine if one should gain admission

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Examples of Aptitude Tests

SAT, MCAT

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Achievement Tests

More specific subject area (placement)

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