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143 Terms

1

learning

a relatively permanent change in behavior; acquired through experience or practice

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Learning theories

classical conditioning (CC)

operant conditioning (OC)

cognitive learning

observational learning

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Classical Conditioning (CC)

learning by association

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Stimulus

an event or object in the environment that cause a response

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Response

the reaction to the stimulus Pavlov knew the dogs salivated when they tasted food

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Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response

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Unconditioned Response

the involuntary response to a naturally occurring or UCS

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Neutral Stimulus (NS)

A stimulus that has no effect on a desired response

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Conditioned

learned

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conditioned stimulus

a stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned response by being paired with the UCS

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Conditioned Response

a learned response to a CS

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High-order conditioning

a strong CS is paired with another NS, causing the NS to become a second CS

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stimulus generalization

responding the same way to a stimulus that is similar to the CS

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stimulus discrimination

to not respond to a similar stimulus; knowing the difference between the CS and similar stimuli

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Extinction

the disappearance of weakening of a CS following the removal or absence of the UCS

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Spontaneous recovery

the reappearance of the CR after extinction has occurred

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Vicarious conditioning

learning associations by observing others and how they react

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avoidance learning

learning to avoid events or conditions associated with dreaded or aversive outcomes

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conditioned taste aversion

avoiding a particular food because the food is associated with nausea or sickness

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advertisement

pair product with pleasurable acts or other desirable things

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21

operant conditioning (OC) (Skinner)

the learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant & unpleasant consequences to behavior

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Reinforcement

consequence following a behavior increases the probability that the behavior will occur again

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Positive reinforcement

consequence for a behavior is the addition or experience of a pleasurable stimulus

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Negative reinforcement

consequence for a behavior is the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus

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Punishment

consequence following a behavior decreases the probability that the behavior will occur again

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Punishment by application

consequence for the behavior is by the addition or experience of an unpleasant stimulus

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Punishment by removal

consequence for behavior is by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus

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For punishment to be effective

  • needs to occur when the misbehavior occurs

  • needs to be intense enough to warrant change

  • needs to be consistent

  • Should be paired with reinforcement of the desired behavior when possible

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Continuous reinforcement

reinforcement of each and every behavior

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partial reinforcement

a pattern of reinforcement in which some portion rather than 100%, of the incorrect behavior are reinforced

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Partial reinforcement effect

behaviors that are partially reinforced are more resistant to extinction

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Interval schedules

a given amount of time must pass before reinforcement is possible

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fixed interval schedule

the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same

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Variable interval schedule

the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event

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Ratio schedule

A certain number of responses must be made before the behavior is reinforced

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fixed ratio schedule

the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same

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variable ration schedule

the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trail or event

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Successive approximations

A series of small, gradual steps, that lead to a desired or particular behavior

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shaping

a technique that consists of gradually molding a desired behavior by reinforcing successive approximation

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40

Discrimination

learning to distinguish between a stimulus that has been reinforced to other stimuli that are similar

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Discriminative stimulus

the stimulus that signals whether a certain behavior is likely to be followed by reward or punishments

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Generalization

the tendency to make the learned response to a stimulus similar to that for which the response was originally reinforced

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43

Extinction

the process in which one is no longer being reinforced for a previously reinforced response to suppress the response from occurring; with - holding reinforcement

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Cognitive learning

learning through cognitive processes such as thinking knowing, problem-solving,& remembering

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45

Examples of Cognitive learning

  • latent learning

  • insight

    • learned helplessness

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Latent learning

that remains hidden until its application becomes useful

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Cognitive map

a mental representation of a spatial arrangement

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48

Insight

the sudden realization of the relationship among various parts of a problem

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49

Learned helpessness

the tendency to fail to act from a situation because of a history of repeated failure because of a history of repeated failures in the past

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50

Observational learning (Albert Bandura)

learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior; learning by imitation

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learning/performance distinction

learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior

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model

the individual who demonstrates a behavior or serves as an example in observational learning

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Attention

the learner must pay attention to the model

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Memory (chpter 5)

the learner must be able to retain the memory of the behavior observed

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Imitation

the learner must be capable of reproducing or imitating the actions of the model

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motivation

the learner must have the desire to perform the action

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Modeling effect

learning a new behavior from a model

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elicitation effect

exhibiting a behavior similar to that of a model in an unfamiliar situation

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inhibitory effect

suppressing a behavior because a model is punished for displaying the behavior

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Disinhibitory effect

displaying a previously suppressed behavior because a model does so without receiving punishment

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definition of memory

an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters that information as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information form storage

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Encoding

a set of mental operations that is performed on sensory information to convert that information into a form that’s usable & can be stored

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Storage

holding onto the information for period of time

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retrieval

getting information from storage that can be used

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Information processing model

assumes that the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory n a series of three parts

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Sensory memory

the very first stage of memory

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Iconic memory

visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second

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Echoic memory

auditory sensory memory, brief memory of something a person has just heard

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Short term memory (stm; working memory )

the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used

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selective attention

ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input

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Chunking

bits of information are combined into meaningful units, or chucks, so that more information can be held in STM

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Maintenance rehearsal

saying bits of information to be remembered over and over in one’s head in order to maintain it in short-term memory

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Long term memory

the memory system into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently

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elaborative rehearsal

a method of transferring information from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in some way

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non-declarative memory

memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses

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declarative memory

contains information that is conscious and known; memory for facts

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semantic memory

general knowledge of language, information learned in formal education

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episodic memory

personal information not readily available to others; daily activities and events

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Retrieval cue

stimulus for remembering; something that trigger us to remember

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encoding specificity

tendency for memory of information to be improved if related information to be improved if related information available when memory was first formed is also available when memory is retrieved

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81

Recall

memory retrieval in which the information to be retrieved must be “pushed” from memory with very few external cues

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Problem- retrieval failure

recall has failed

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83

Serial position effect

information at beginning and end of a body of information accurately remembered than information in the middle

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primary effect

tendency to remember information at beginning of a body of information better than what follows

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recently effect

tendency to remember information at end of a body of information better than the information ahead of it

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86

recognition

ability to match a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact

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87

problem-false positive

error of recognition in which people think that they recognize a stimulus that is not actually in memory

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Automatic encoding

tendency of certain kinds of information to enter long term memory with little or no effortful encoding

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Flashbulb memories

automatic encoding that occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional association for person remembering it

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constructive processing

memory retrieval process in which memories are “built” or reconstructed from information stored during encoding

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91

Problem- Hindsights bias

the tendency to falsely believe, through revision of older memories to include newest information that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event

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Misinformation effect

tendency of misleading information presented after an event to alter the memories of the event itself

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93

False memory syndrome

creation of inaccurate or false memories through the suggestion of others often while the person is under hypnosis

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94

Curve of forgetting

a graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually

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95

distributed practice

spacing one’s study sessions

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96

Massed practice

studying a complete body of information all at once

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97

Encoding failure

the informations not attended to and fails to be encoded

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98

Decay or Disuse

information that is not accessed decays from the storage system over time

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99

Proactive interference

older information already in memory interferes with the learning of newer information

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100

Retroactive Interference

Newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information

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