MLT 230: Final Cumulative Review

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923 Terms

1

functions of thyroid hormones

- increase metabolic rate

- growth/maturation of body and brain

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2

essential component of thyroid hormones

iodine

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3

two hormones produced by thyroid

T3/T4 and calcitonin

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4

responsible for calcium homeostasis

calcitonin

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5

effects of thyroid hormone (T3/T4)

- tissue growth

- brain maturation

- increased heat production

- increased O2 consumption

- increased # of beta-andrenergic receptors

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3-4 times more potent than T4

T3

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7

active form of thyroid hormone

T3

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8

amount is 50 times greater than T3

T4

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9

can be converted to T3

T4

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10

problems occur more frequently with this hormone vs. calcitonin

thyroid hormone (T3/T4)

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11

transports thyroid hormone through plasma

protein

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12

70-75% of T3 and T4 are transported by this protein

TBP/TBG

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13

remainder of T3 and T4 transported by this protein

pre-albumin/albumin

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14

pre-albumin and albumin transport this thyroid hormone

T4

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15

only alternative to TBP/TBG for T3 transport

albumin

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16

too much thyroid hormone (acute)

thyrotoxocosis

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17

lack of TSH or TRH

secondary hypothyroidism

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18

lack of T3/T4

primary hypothyroidism

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19

insufficient free T3 and T4

myxedema

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20

lab results in primary hypothyroidism

low T4 and high TSH

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21

primary hypothyroidism disease (congenital)

cretinism

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22

chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

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23

abnormal thyroid function due to anti-peroxidase

Hashimoto's

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24

most common auto-antibody in Hashimoto's

anti-peroxidase

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25

asymptomatic

euthyroid

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26

lab results for hypothyroidism - primary

TSH increased

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27

lab results for hypothyroidism - secondary

TSH decreased

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28

amioderone-induced thyroid disease causes

hypothyroidism

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29

example of secondary hyperthyroidism

Toxic adenoma

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30

lab results in toxic adenoma

pituitary produces too much TSH

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31

substance that toxic adenomas may secrete

HcG

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32

most common antibody in Grave's disease

TSab

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symptom of Grave's disease

diffuse toxic goiter

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34

example of primary hyperthyroidism

Grave's disease

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35

lab results in Grave's disease

undetectable TSH

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36

lab results in primary hyperthyroidism

decreased TSH

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37

lab results in secondary hyperthyroidism

increased TSH

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38

guideline testing for thyroid evaluation

sTSH and FT4

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39

sTSH is a ____________________ immunoassay

sandwich

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40

reason sTSH is so sensitive

2 monoclonal antibodies to TSH are used

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41

immunoassays for sTSH

EIA, RIA, FIA or chemiluminesensce

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42

TSH reflex testing

If TSH is high, then FT4 performed. If FT4 is low, then T3 is performed.

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43

FT4 is a _________________ immunoassay

competititve

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44

to calculate the FTI, you need...

TT4 and TBG values (THBR/T-Uptake)

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45

helps determine if disease is a true thyroid disease or just a protein problem with TBG

FTI

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46

FTI formula

TT4 x TBG/THBR/T-Uptake

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47

FTI must be increased or decreased for disease to be...

true thyroid disease

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48

TT4 is affected by

amount of TBG

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49

TBG is increased in

pregnancy and contraceptive use

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50

TBG is decreased in

liver and kidney disease

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51

The THBR/T-Uptake is

a percent inversely proportional to TBG

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52

indirect measurement of available binding sites

THBR/T-Uptake

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53

THBR/T-Uptake is decreased in

hypothyroidism

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54

THBR/T-Uptake is increased in

hyperthyroidism

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55

If THBR/T-Uptake is increased

then TBG is decreased.

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56

If THBR/T-Uptake is decreased

then TBG is increased

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57

used to screen newborns for thyroid disease

rT3

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58

thyroid tumor marker test

thyroglobulin

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TSH antibodies occur in

Grave's disease

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TPO antibodies occur in

Hashimoto's disease

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61

elevated TBG, low T-Uptake, and increased TT4 are consistent with

patient taking estrogen

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62

T-Uptake is increased in

hyperthyroidism and TBG decreased

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63

The old T3 resin uptake test has been replaced by a direct assay for:

bound T3

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64

True or false?

Individuals taking recurring regimens of androgens or anabolic steroid drugs may exhibit increased TBG levels.

false

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65

A 65-year-old woman presents with fatigue, hypothermia, pericardial effusions, and hair loss. Her thyroid function tests show a significantly elevated TSH and a low free T4. All of the following laboratory test abnormalities may be associated with her underlying condition EXCEPT:

a. An elevated cholesterol level

b. Elevated WBC

c. Elevated CPK levels

d. Anemia

b. Elevated WBC

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66

A 26-year-old man presents with a 3-cm right lobe thyroid nodule and a normal TSH. What is the next test that should be performed?

a. Free T4 level

b. FNA of the nodule

c. Thyroid scan

d. Thyroid ultrasound

b. FNA of the nodule

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lab results with increased TBG

- Decreased T-Uptake

- Increased TT4, FT4, FTI and TSH

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lab results with decreased TBG

- Increased T-Uptake, FT4, FTI and TSH

- Decreased TT4

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69

primary antibody in Hashimoto's

anti-peroxidase

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primary antibody in Grave's

TSab

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If a patient has a low level of TBG due to liver or kidney disease, then

FTI will be low.

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72

If a patient has a low level of TBG due to liver or kidney disease, then

TT4 will be low.

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73

The T Uptake test will be elevated when

the patient is producing to much thyroid hormone.

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74

True or False

FSH affects all cells in the body.

False

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75

2 examples of water soluble hormones

epinephrine and adrenaline

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76

an example of lipid soluble hormone

testosterone

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77

when does the body secrete melatonin and from what gland?

at night when eyes are closed and from the pineal gland

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78

role of hypothalmus

- connection between the brain and the endocrine system

- influences the pituitary gland

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True or False

The anterior pituitary only produces growth hormone.

False

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80

ADH secreted in the

posterior pituitary gland

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81

Role of thyroid gland

regulates metabolism

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gland where insulin and glucagon come from

pancreas

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secretions of the adrenal cortex

glucocorticoids

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a secretion of the adrenal medulla

epinephrine

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6 functions of hormones

1. Homeostasis

2. Growth and development

3. Sexual maturation

4. Energy production and stabilization

5. Stressful circumstances

6. Promote or inhibit other hormones

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86

hormones that promote secretion of other hormones

releasing hormones

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hormones that suppress the secretion of other hormones

inhibitory hormones

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hormones that stimulate growth and activity of other glands

tropic hormones

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hormones that act directly on target tissues

effector hormones

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90

Endocrine cascade

Hypothalamus releases hormones with directions (from the brain) to the pituitary glands.

Pituitary glands release hormones to other endocrine glands. (4 tropic and 2 effector)

Endocrine glands release effector hormones.

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91

4 tropic hormones produced by the anterior pituitary

TSH, ACTH, FSH & LH

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2 effector hormones produced by the anterior pituitary

Growth hormone and prolactin

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hormones of the anterior pituitary that work on a negative feedback system

effector hormones - growth hormone and prolactin

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GnRH from hypothalamus causes

FSH & LH to be released by anterior pituitary

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CRH (cortico-releasing hormone) from they hypothalamus causes

ACTH to be released by anterior pituitary

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TRH from the hypothalamus causes

TSH and prolactin to be released from anterior pituitary

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ACTH from anterior pituitary causes

adrenal glands to secrete hormones

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FSH & LH from the anterior pituitary causes

gonads to release hormones

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99

TSH from the anterior pituitary causes

thyroid to release hormones

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100

GHRH from the hypothalamus causes

anterior pituitary to release effector growth hormone

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