Sed/Strat 1

studied byStudied by 7 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Quaternary

1 / 132

Tags and Description

Sed Strat exam 1

133 Terms

1

Quaternary

2.58Ma

New cards
2

Neogene

2.58-23.03 Ma

New cards
3

Paleogene

23.03-66Ma

New cards
4

Cenozoic

End 66 Ma (Quaternary, Neogene, Paleogene)

New cards
5

Cretaceous

66-145Ma

New cards
6

Jurassic

145-201.3 Ma

New cards
7

Triassic

201.3-251.9Ma

New cards
8

Mesozoic

66-251Ma (Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic

New cards
9

Paleozoic

251-541Ma (COSDMPP)

New cards
10

Ordovician

443.8-485.4Ma

New cards
11

Cambrian

485.4-541Ma

New cards
12

Precambrian

541-4600Ma (Proterozoic, Archean, Hadean)

New cards
13

Proterozoic

541-2500Ma

New cards
14

Hadean

4000-4600Ma

New cards
15

Sedmentology

Process oriented

New cards
16

Straitigraphy

Spatial and Temporal variations

New cards
17

Principals of Stratigraphy

Steno

  1. Superposition

  2. Original Horizontality

  3. Original Lateral Continuity

New cards
18

Superposition

in anysequence of undisturbed strata, oldest layer at bottom, and successively younger layers are successively higher

New cards
19

Original Horizontality

states that sedimentary layers were deposited nearly horizontal and parallel to Earth’s surface

New cards
20

Original Lateral Continuity

At the time of depotion, strata extened cont in all directions until they termintated by thinning at the edge of the basin, ended abruptly at a barrier to sedimentation, or graded laterally into a different sediment type

<p>At the time of depotion, strata extened cont in all directions until they termintated by thinning at the edge of the basin, ended abruptly at a barrier to sedimentation, or graded laterally into a different sediment type</p>
New cards
21

Uniformitarianism

Principle that processes acting upon Earth today have also operated in the geologic past

New cards
22

Fossil (biotic succession

principle that body fossils occur in strata in a definite determinable order

New cards
23

cross cutting relationships

states that a rock unit, sediment body, or fault that cuts another geologic unit is younger than the unit it was cut

New cards
24

Walther’s Law

facies that are found today in vertical sequence are the product of a series of depositional environments which lay laterally adjacent to eachotherReservoir Characterization - Chapter 4

New cards
25

What is info is preserved in sedimentary rocks

Tectonics(internal)

Climate(external)

New cards
26

Sediment Routing System

tectonics+climate=erosions+deposition

New cards
27

Physical weathering

abrasion

insolition(thermal fatigue) and exfoliation

frost wedging and exfoliation

root-wedging

salt-wedging

transport

New cards
28

Chemical weathering

dissolution

hydrolysis

oxidation and reduction

New cards
29

Goldich Stability Series

knowt flashcard image
New cards
30

What controls sedimentation?

amount of material available (erosion)

space available (accommodation space)

preservation potential

New cards
31

why is sed/strat important?

host most natural resources (oil,gas,water)

preserve Earth’s geological history

significant for energy resources, environment, economy

New cards
32

How much of Erath’s exposed rocks are sed

70%

New cards
33

Reynold’s Number

knowt flashcard image
New cards
34

Froude Number

knowt flashcard image
New cards
35

Fr<1

Subcritical

New cards
36

Fr>1

Supercritical

New cards
37

Re>>2000

Turbulent

New cards
38

Re<500

Laminar

New cards
39

Flow Regimine Diagram

knowt flashcard image
New cards
40

Hjulstrom Diagram

knowt flashcard image
New cards
41

How does a particle settle back down?

Function of viscosity, size, shape and density of particles

New cards
42

Stoke’s Law

a single solide sphere settling in a fluid has a terminal settling velocity which is uniquely related to the diameter

<p>a single solide sphere settling in a fluid has a terminal settling velocity which is uniquely related to the diameter</p>
New cards
43

Implications of stoke’s law

high density minerals settle more rapidly than low density minerals

slow moving, high viscous fluids can transport courser grained materials more easily than less viscous materials

New cards
44

How do we describe sed rocks?

texture

composition

sed structures

New cards
45

Sandstones

classified according to grain size and composition

New cards
46

Conglomerate

classified according to clast size and composition

composed of >30% of clasts

New cards
47

Pebble size

4-64mm

New cards
48

Cobble size

64-264mm

New cards
49

Boulder size

264+mm

New cards
50

Granule size

2-4mm

New cards
51

Wentworth scale

knowt flashcard image
New cards
52

Laminar flow

flows smooth and streamlined

New cards
53

Turbulent Flow

flows irregular and chaotically

New cards
54

Phi Scale

phi=-log2(d)

fine size: positive

course size : negative

<p>phi=-log2(d)</p><p>fine size: positive</p><p>course size : negative</p>
New cards
55

What 3 things affect grain shape

form

roundness( angularity)

surface texture

<p>form</p><p>roundness( angularity)</p><p>surface texture</p>
New cards
56

sorting

measure of the range of grain sizes presnt and the magnitude of the spread around the mean size

<p>measure of the range of grain sizes presnt and the magnitude of the spread around the mean size</p>
New cards
57

Why is grain size and sorting important?

Give us info on physical processes and depositional environments

control oil and gas resivior quality (porosity and permeability)

control groundwater reservior volume

New cards
58

Grain orientation to determine flow direction

knowt flashcard image
New cards
59

clasts supported

orthoconglomerate

when clasts are in contact with eachother and matrix is <20%

New cards
60

Matrix Supported

paraconglomerate

when matrix is >20%

New cards
61

polymictic conglomerate

made of clasts of different compositions

New cards
62

olimictic or monogenic

made of clasts of the same composition

New cards
63

conglomerate naming formula

support+clast type+avg size of clasts+conglomerate

New cards
64

Composition of sandstones

relative proportion of quartz, feldspars and lithics/rock fragments

<p>relative proportion of quartz, feldspars and lithics/rock fragments</p>
New cards
65

imbrication

primary depositional fabric

New cards
66

QFL

l=lithics (<62micrometers

New cards
67

QFR

R=rock fragments include all polycrystalline lithic fragments (size bias)

New cards
68

Sediment gravity flows

sediment transported by the effect of gravity acting directly on the sediment or rock

New cards
69

Debris Flow

highly cohesice sediment water mixture drived by its own weight

initiate on slopes >10, flow on slopes <5

New cards
70

Debris flow deposit

poorly sorted

large range of grain size

mud matrix

lack internal layering

base may show evidence of shearing or scouring

either no grading, normal or reverse grading

New cards
71

Turbidity Currents

subaqueous

triggers: earthquake, storm, sediment failure, alignment slopes

turbulence causes sediment to become suspened

creates desnity contrast with surrounding water

flows stop when density contrast is reduced by settling

<p>subaqueous</p><p>triggers: earthquake, storm, sediment failure, alignment slopes</p><p>turbulence causes sediment to become suspened</p><p>creates desnity contrast with surrounding water</p><p>flows stop when density contrast is reduced by settling</p>
New cards
72

Turbiditty currents three main parts

head: concentration of courser particles, most intense turbulance, overhanging, velocity slower than body

body: uniform, steady velocity, velocity > haed velocity, feeds head, near uniform thickness, can be area of erosion or deposition

tail: thins rapidly away from body, becomes more dilute, area of deposition

New cards
73

What drives velocity on turbidity currents?

desnity contrast

New cards
74

Turbididte Bouma Sequence E

Massive Ungraded mudstone, possibel bioturbation, pelagic seds

New cards
75

Turbididte Bouma Sequence D

Lower flow regimes planar laminated siltstone

New cards
76

Turbididte Bouma Sequence C

Ripple laminated fine-grained sandstone, flame/convolute lamination

New cards
77

Turbididte Bouma Sequence B

Uper flow regime planar laminated medium grained sandstone

New cards
78

Turbididte Bouma Sequence A

Normally garded sandstone, course grains or rip-up clasts at the base scoured base

New cards
79

liquefied flows

concentarted dispersions of grains in which sedimenrt is supported by upward escape of flow of pore water or by injection of water from below

New cards
80

liquefied flow deposit

thick, poorly sorted sand

identified by fluid escape structures

New cards
81

Grain flow

occur on steep surfaces near angle of repose (30)

cohesion often causes cohesionless sediment to be piled up beyond angle of repose

grain-to-grain contact supports flow

most commonly observed in aeolian environments

deposits difficult to preserve

almost like billiards balls

New cards
82

Carbonate production

material for carbonate sediments is extracted from the dissovled load of the sea or other body of water

New cards
83

what controls carbonate production

light, pH, temperature and nutrients

New cards
84

main areas of carbonate production

carbonate platforms (non-reefs)

organic reef env

slope basin carbonates or carbonate ramps

mixed carbonate siliciclastic systems (non-reef)

New cards
85

light

most important control on skeletal carbonate precipitation because of the dominance of photo-autotrophic arganisms in carbonate productions

New cards
86

carbonate compensation depth

the water depth at which the rate of supply of calcium carbonate from the surface is equal to the rate of dissolution

<p>the water depth at which the rate of supply of calcium carbonate from the surface is equal to the rate of dissolution</p>
New cards
87

What controls the CCD?

solubility of calcium carbonate is determined by temperature, pressure and dissolved CO2 in the water

in areas of high productivity, greater rates of supply makes the CCD deeper

New cards
88

increase pH

decrease CaCO3 solubility, deeper CCD, higher T, lower P

New cards
89

What does a Temp increase do to the CCD?

The CCD gets deeper

New cards
90

would you expect a shallower or deeper CCD in areas of upwelling

Deeper

New cards
91

Components of limestone

biogenic

non-biogenic

carbonate minerals (micrite and sparite)

New cards
92

Carbonate Minerals

calcite, aragonite, dolomite

New cards
93

carbonate grains: skeletal and plants

molluscs, stromatolites, nanoplanktos, cephalopods, corals, crinoids, coccoliths, oncoids

New cards
94

nonbiogenic constitients of limestone

ooids( speherical bodies of CaCO3 less than 2mm

poloids (fecal pellets) no cocentric structure

intraclasts- fragments of calcium carbonate material that has been partially lithified and then broken up and reworked to form clasts

New cards
95

carbonate mud- micrite

made of fine-grained calcium carbonate less then 4 micrometers across

they form by chemical precipitation of CaCO2 out of saturated wtaer

New cards
96

Sparry Calcite- sparite

course-grained calcite crystals that appear clear to translucent in plane light

New cards
97

Folk Sequence

relative abundance of 1. carbonate grains or allochems, 2. microcrystallline carbonate mud (micrite) and sparry calcite cement

<p>relative abundance of 1. carbonate grains or allochems, 2. microcrystallline carbonate mud (micrite) and sparry calcite cement</p>
New cards
98

Dunham Sequence

relative abundance of allochems and micrites or sparite, but does not consider ID of grain

<p>relative abundance of allochems and micrites or sparite, but does not consider ID of grain</p>
New cards
99

How to decrease CO2

increase temp

decrease pressure

increase CO2 and lower solubility of CO2

photosynthetic organisms

New cards
100

inorganic precipitation

preference for calcite vs aragonite seas

Mg2+ rich seas favor aragonite

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 130 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(7)
note Note
studied byStudied by 32 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 164 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 372 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard59 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard56 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard208 terms
studied byStudied by 32 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard22 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard28 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard177 terms
studied byStudied by 60 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)