Gen bio exam 1

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Neural Development

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Biology

200 Terms

1

Neural Development

involves gene expression and signal transduction (nervous system in the brain)

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2

Neuronal Plasticity

modifications to nervous system after birth; activity dependent; "use it or lose it"

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3

Synapses

junction between neurons that tell the brain memories. When broken, the memory is "lost"

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4

What's the first step in the process of memory formation?

Stimulus

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5

What's the second step in the process of memory formation?

Sensory Memory

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6

What's the third step in the process of memory formation?

Short-Term Memory

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7

What's the fourth step in the process of memory formation?

Long-Term Memory

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8

What process is it when you retrieve memory from the long-term memory into the short-term?

Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)

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9

What happens when sensory memory and short-term memory is not encoded?

Forgotten

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10

Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)

encoding and reencoding memories; changes the brain (stronger synapses/memory)

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11

Neuron

Nerve cell

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12

Emergence

the whole is more than just the sum of its parts (ex: H2O)

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13

Levels of Biological Organization (largest to smallest)

Biosphere > Ecosystems > Communities > Populations > Organisms > Organs & Organ Systems > Tissues > Cells > Organelles > Molecule

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14

BECPO(OS)TCOM

an acronym for the levels of biological organization

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15

What's 1st the level of biological organization? (from largest to smallest)

Biosphere

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16

What's 2nd the level of biological organization? (from largest to smallest)

Ecosystems

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17

What's 3rd the level of biological organization? (from largest to smallest)

Communities

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18

What's 4th the level of biological organization? (from largest to smallest)

Populations

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19

What's the 5th level of biological organization? (from largest to smallest)

Organisms

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20

What's 6th the level of biological organization? (from largest to smallest)

Organs/Organ Systems

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21

What's 7th the level of biological organization? (from largest to smallest)

Tissues

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22

What's the 8th level of biological organization? (from largest to smallest)

Cells

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23

What's the 9th level of biological organization? (from largest to smallest)

Organelles

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24

What's the 10th level of biological organization? (from largest to smallest)

Molecules

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25

Hypothesis

testable explanation for observations based on available data

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26

Prediction

what you expect to see when you test your hypothesis

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27

Theory

broad explanation with significant support

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28

Law

statement of what always occurs under certain circumstances

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29

The Scientific Method

Observation, Hypothesis, Experiment, Data Collection, Conclusion, and Retest (if needed)

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30

Electrons (e-)

a subatomic particle with a negative charge, move rapidly, determine how element reacts

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31

What happens when an electron is is excited?

Moves farther away from the nucleus, can be used to do work

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32

Electron Shell

electron's potential energy

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33

Valence Shell

the outermost shell- where the bonds between electrons form

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34

CHON

the 4 main elements in Biology (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen)

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35

Molecule

compound with 2 or more atoms

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36

Energy

capacity to cause change or perform work

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37

Electronegativity

affinity for electrons; tendency of an atom go attract electrons

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38

In terms of biology, which element has the highest electronegativity?

Oxygen

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39

Covalent Bond

sharing of electrons between atoms

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40

Ionic Bond

stealing of electron between atoms, Polar, anion and cation, salts

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Nonpolar Covalent

same electronegativity = share e- equally

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Polar Covalent

<2 difference in electronegativity = share e- unequally

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43

Cation

positive ion

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44

Anion

negative ion

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45

Hydrogen Bond

VERY STRONG dipole-dipole interactions; holds water together (polarity causes attractions w/ eachother)

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46

Van Der Waals

develop because electrons are in constant motion

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48

involves hydrogen bonds and london dispersion forces

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49

What are the emergent properties of water?

hydrogen bonds, cohesive behavior, moderates temperature, expansion upon freezing, versatility as a solvent

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50

Cohesion

molecules stick to each other

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51

Adhesion

water molecules stick to other polar molecules by hydrogen bonding

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52

Surface Tension

A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid (see cohesion)

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53

Does water have a high or low specific heat?

high specific heat

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54

What does a high specific heat mean?

Hard to change H2O temperature

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55

Does water have a high or low heat of vaporization?

high heat of vaporization

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56

What does a high heat of vaporization mean?

hard to change state

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57

Why does ice float in water?

Ice is less dense than water, H bonds are more "ordered", makes air pockets

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58

When does water reach its greatest density?

4°C

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59

Hydrophilic

water loving (ions, salts)

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60

Hydrophobic

water fearing (lipids)

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61

Is something hydrophobic polar or nonpolar?

nonpolar

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62

Is something hydrophilic polar or nonpolar?

polar

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63

Why is carbon important in organic compounds?

it provides molecule length, double bond positions, branching, and suggests the presence of rings

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64

What is function parallel with?

structure

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65

Hydrocarbons

compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen (nonpolar)

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66

Hydroxyl Group

-OH

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What is the compound name of hydroxyl?

alcohol (-ol)

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68

Is hydroxyl polar/nonpolar? Hydrophilic or Hydrophobic?

Polar, Hydrophilic

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69

How acidic is hydroxyl?

Neutral

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70

Carbonyl Group

C=O

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71

What is the compound name of carbonyl?

aldehyde/ketone

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72

Is carbonyl polar/nonpolar? Hydrophilic or Hydrophobic?

Polar, Hydrophilic

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How acidic is carbonyl?

Neutral

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74

Carboxyl Group

-COOH

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75

What is the compound name of carboxyl?

Carboxylic acid

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Is Carboxyl polar/nonpolar? Hydrophilic or Hydrophobic?

Polar, Hydrophilic

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77

How acidic is carboxyl?

Acidic

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78

Amino Group

-NH2

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79

What is the compound name for amino?

Amines

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80

Is Amino polar/nonpolar? Hydrophilic or Hydrophobic?

Polar, Hydrophilic

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81

How acidic is amino?

IT'S BASIC

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82

Sulfhydryl Group

-SH

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83

What is the compound name of sulfhydryl?

thiols

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84

Is sulfhydryl polar/nonpolar? Hydrophilic or Hydrophobic?

Polar, Hydrophilic

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85

How acidic is sulfhydryl?

Neutral

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86

Phosphate Group

-PO4H2

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87

What is the compound name of phosphate?

Organic Phosphate

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88

Is phosphate polar/nonpolar? Hydrophilic or Hydrophobic?

Polar, Hydrophilic

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89

How acidic is phosphate?

Acidic

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90

Methyl Group

-CH3

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91

What is the compound name of methyl?

Methyl Hydrocarbon

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92

Is methyl polar/nonpolar? Hydrophilic or Hydrophobic?

NONPOLAR, HYDROPHOBIC

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93

How acidic is methyl?

NEUTRAL

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94

Is oil saturated or unsaturated?

unsaturated

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95

Is butter saturated or unsaturated?

saturated

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96

Monomers

building blocks of polymers

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97

Which biological molecule is NOT a polymer?

lipids

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98

Polymer

molecules composed of many monomers; makes up macromolecules

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99

Dehydration Synthesis

a chemical reaction in which two molecules are bonded together with the removal of a water molecule

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100

Hydrolysis

a chemical reaction that splits a molecule by adding water.

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