Environment and Society Final Exam

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Aldo Leopold was a proponent of Land ethic

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1

Aldo Leopold was a proponent of Land ethic

true

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2

The human Body’s response to heat and cold is a great example of a negative feedback loop

true

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3

Ecosystem services are processes that naturally result from the normal functioning of ecological systems and from which human beings draw benefits. If we had to pay for them, the cost would be enormous.

true

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4

Human populations on islands are easy to sustain because there are plenty of resources.

false

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5

Dog breeds are a great example of natural selection.

true

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6

Penguin nesting sites are great examples of uniform distribution.

true

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7

Coral snakes are red, black, and yellow.  Their color pattern is an example of cryptic coloration.

false

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8

Primary succession starts after a forest is cleared, and a new one develops from the remaining seed bank.

false

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9

A typical biome is defined by precipitation and temperature.

true

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10

argued that nature deserved protection for its own inherent value

John Muir

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11

an academic environmental science program that heavily incorporates the social sciences as well as the natural sciences

Environmental Studies

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12

utilitarian view champion which says that the greatest practical benefits for the most people should be used

John Stuart Mill

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13

founder of the US forest service, a known anthropocentrist

Gifford Pinchot

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14

a social movement dedicated to protecting the natural world

environmentalism

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15

potential energy held in the bonds between atoms

chemical energy

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16

sunlight-powered series of reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose, oxygen, and water

Photosynthesis

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17

energy of position

potential energy

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18

energy of motion

kinetic energy

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19

the cell uses oxygen to split glucose into carbon dioxide and water, thereby releasing chemical energy

cellular respiration

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20

accidental changes in the DNA

mutations

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21

native or restricted to a particular geographic region

endemic

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22

a species that can survive in a wide array of habitats or use a wide array of resources

generalist

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23

the process by which new species are generated

speciation

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a species that can survive only in a narrow range of habitats that contain very specific resources

specialist

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soil polygons, bingos and permafrost, No trees

tundra

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26

Distinct seasons, trees that loose their leaves

Temperate deciduous forest

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In northern latitudes, cone-bearing trees (i.e., pines, fir, spruce) hares, and lynx

northern coniferous forest

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28

Arid, filled with animals that can withstand high temperatures and low amounts of moisture, succulent plants

desert

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teeming with life, warm and moist, near the equator

tropical rainforest

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the process by which species adapt to competition by using the shared resources in different ways

resource partitioning

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a species that has an especially far-reaching effect on a community

keystone species

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a series of changes in the population size of organisms at different trophic levels in a food chain

trophic cascade

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33

a linear series of feeding relationships

food chain

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a graphical representation of the numbers of individuals in a food chain

Ecological Pyramid (Trophic Pyramid)

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35

The Earth is as old as science says it is, evolution and plate tectonics are just as science says. No issues at all with the age according to science.

Theistic Evolution

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36

Genesis is to be read literally, the Earth is young 6,000-10,000 years

scientific creationism

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37

Genesis talks about the "Eretz," or promised land, not the world's origin. The flood is likely only regional.

historical creationism

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38

Genesis 1-2 is a blueprint for order, not a literal interpretation

progressive creationsims

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39

The days of Genesis 1-2 are literal 24 hour days with gaps of unspecified amounts of time between them

Gap-theory creationism

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40

What is a paradigm

a dominant worldview in science

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41

The scientific process and knowledge is based on ________.

a systematic process of learning about and testing our understanding of the world

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42

what is an experiment

is an activity designed to test the validity of a hypothesis

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43

In general, natural resources ________

should be used efficiently and conserved

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44

Environmental problems whose dimensions include differential exposure to risk from toxic wastes and air pollution or lack of access to the natural beauty of parks based on ethnicity or race are issues of ________.

environmental justice

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45

Ruben has a new puppy and wants to feed it the best possible food. He decides on an experiment where he will feed it the very best canned food plus a dietary supplement of vitamins recommended by a veterinarian. Which of the following best describes Ruben's project?

This is not an experiment–there are no controls or replicates.

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46

Sustainable development ________.

means consuming resources without compromising future availability

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47

Credited for articulating the conservation ethic and for founding the U.S. Forest Service.

Gifford Pinchot

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48

________ are composed of amino acids.

Proteins

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49

________ are the primary water‑insoluble components of cell membranes.

lipids

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50

The greatest source of water in the hydrological cycle is ________.

oceans

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51

One example of artificial selection is ________.

broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage and brussels sprouts bred from Brassica oleracea

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52

Zebra mussels ________.

are an invasive exotic species that clogs water intake pipes at factories, power plants, and wastewater treatment facilities

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53

Individuals of a single species fighting over access to a limiting resource is one example of ________.

intraspecific competition

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54

________ capture solar energy and use photosynthesis to produce sugars.

Producers

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55

Desert and tundra both ________.

have relatively low precipitation

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56

The statement, "hiking up a mountain in the southwestern United States is like walking from Mexico to Canada," is meant to demonstrate that ________ change(s) rapidly as you change altitude and latitude.

biomes

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57

The process by which several researchers review another researcher's manuscript prior to publication to ensure research quality is referred to as ________.

peer review

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58

Which of the following represents an example of aerobic cellular respiration?

glucose + oxygen → water + carbon dioxide + energy

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59

The wavelengths of solar energy that are absorbed by plants in photosynthesis are ________.

within the visible spectrum

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60

The greatest human impact on the carbon cycle has been through ________.

combustion of fossil fuels

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61

The two processes that determine the world's current biodiversity are ________.

extinction and speciation rates

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62

Endemic species ________

are found only in one place on the planet

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63

Extinction is ________.

a natural process

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64

Net primary productivity ________.

the energy used by plants to make biomass after respiration

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65

A population is a group of ________.

individuals of a single species that live and interact in one area

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66

The trophic level of "producers" includes ________.

any organism producing biomass directly from photosynthesis

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67

Which of the following would be most vulnerable to extinction?

an orchid endemic to a mountaintop forest where logging is occurring

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68

An example of a positive feedback loop ________.

melting arctic snow exposing dark surfaces that heat up and cause further melting

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69

The greatest planetary pool of nitrogen is ________.

the atmosphere

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70

The carrying capacity is the ________.

maximum sustainable population that a given environment can support

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71

The functional role of a species in its community is its ________.

niche

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72

________ are typical primary consumers in a temperature deciduous forest

Deer

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73

In a population of field mice, an example of an adaptive trait that could help with reproduction and/or survival would be ________

having a bit more fur to withstand cold weather

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74

Populations lacking any environmental resistance tend to increase by ________.

exponential growth

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75

Which of the following is true about top predators?

They are likely to be keystone species

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76

Zooplankton-eating fish are ________

secondary consumers

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77

Which terrestrial biome has the most biodiversity?

tropical rainforest

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78

Geothermal energy, wind, and solar radiation are all examples of ________.

renewable environmental factors

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79

By definition, parasites ________ their host.

feed on and harm

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80

Costa Rică is most concerned with what the road may do to their wildebeest migration.

False

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81

Existence value is the worth of something's beauty or emotional appeal.

false

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82

Environmental Policy pertains to human interactions with the environment. It regulates resource use or reduces pollution to promote human welfare and protect resources.

true

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83

India, in the 1970's, initiated the one child policy.

false

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84

The one child policy has lead to a shrinking workforce.

true

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85

Low infant mortality rates are closely tied to rural societies.

false

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86

Traditional agriculture uses large-scale machines and fossil fuels to boost yields, and it also uses irrigation, fertilizers, and pesticides, as well as often plant monocultures.

false

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87

Soil influences ecosystems as much as climate, latitude, and elevation.

true

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88

Species Richness is the extent to which species differ in number of individuals.

false

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89

Wild species produce up to $150 billion/year of drugs that save thousands of lives.

true

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90

a party that fails to invest in controlling pollution or carrying out environmentally responsible activities

free-rider

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91

a developing school of economics that applies the principles of ecology and systems thinking to the description and analysis of economies

ecological economics

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92

a developing school of economics that modifies the principles of neoclassical economics to address environmental challenges

environmental economics

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93

a government grant of money or resources to a private entity to support and promote that industry

subsidy

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94

a method in which costs for a proposed action are compared to the sum of benefits for that proposed action.

cost-benefit analysis

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95

the period of a woman's life from puberty to menopause where she could become pregnant

reproductive window

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96

a measure of the "stuff" one accumulates throughout life

affluence

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97

maximal fertility rates of reproduction

constant fertility

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98

the TFR that maintains a stable population size

replacement fertility

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99

theoretical model of economic and cultural change that explains the declining birth and death rates that occurred in Western nations

demographic transition

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100

a storehouse for samples of the world's crop diversity

seed bank

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