Biology Chapters 3,4, and 5

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Biological Community

1 / 102

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Biology

9th

103 Terms

1

Biological Community

a group of interacting populations that occupy the same geographic area at the same time. The organisms depend on each other.

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2

Limiting Factor

Any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms. Might limit one species but cause another to thrive

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3

Range of tolerance

Range of chemical and physical conditions that must be maintained for populations of a particular species to stay alive and grow, develop, and function normally. Most amount of animal in the middle

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4

Optimum Zone of Tolerance

The conditions where the greatest number of a species is

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5

Tolerance

The ability to survive and reproduce under a range of environmental circumstances

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6

ecological succession

when an ecological community replaces another because of biotic or abiotic factors

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7

primary succession

An ecological succession that begins in an area where no biotic community previously existed. The area is exposed rock with no top soil. Lichen grows in the rocks and breaks it down, creating soil, some plants grow till eventually trees. Pioneer stage to intermittent to mature. Very slow

Pioneer stage to intermediate stage, to mature community

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8

Pioneer stage

First stage of primary succession that begins with hardy organisms that can grow and reproduce under adverse conditions.

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9

Intermediate stage

grasses, shrubs, shade-intolerant trees

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10

climax community

A stable, mature community that undergoes little or no change in species over time

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11

secondary succession

Succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil. Predictable cane after community removed, but soil stay. Faster than Primary succession

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12

succession's end point

After disturbance can no longer be predicted

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13

Weather

The condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.

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14

Latitude

Distance north or south of the equator. 0 degrees-90 degrees

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15

Climate

The average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time. (Affected by latitude)

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16

Biomes

Biomes are classified by characteristics of their plants, temperature and precipitation

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17

Permafrost

permanently frozen layer of soil beneath the surface of the ground

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18

Types of Biomes

Tundra, Boreal Forest, Temperate Forest, Temperate Woodland and Shrubland, Temperate grassland, Desert, Tropical Savanna, Tropical Seasonal Forest, tropical Rainforest,

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19

Tundra Biome

a treeless biome with a layer of permanently frozen soil below the surface called permafrost No trees, shallow rooted plants

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20

Boreal Forest (Taiga) (Northern Coniferous Forest) Biome

long and cold winters, cool summers, moderate precipitation (Alaska, Canada, Russia, etc.) Broad band of evergreen forest; no permafrost layer

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21

Temperate Deciduous Forest Biome

a forest (or biome) that is characterized by trees that shed their leaves in the fall 4 Seasons Broadleaved deciduous trees

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22

Temperate Woodland and Shrubland Biome

Hot, dry summers, nutrient-poor soil; woody evergreen shrubs, chaparral, coyotes

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23

temperate grassland biome

Fertile soil's able to support thick grasses No trees because too dry and grazers eat the seedlings

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24

Desert Biome

a biome that has little or no plant life, long periods without rain, and extreme temperatures (to and cold); Found on every continent except Europe

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25

Tropical Savanna Biome

biome characterized by grasses and scattered trees, and herd animals such as zebras and antelopes Less precipitation than other

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26

Tropical Seasonal (Dry) Forests Biome

Rainfall seasonal, in dry season trees lose their leaves

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27

Tropical Rain Forest Biome

climate is warm and humid all year long and there is a lot of rain; abundant plant and animal life can be found here Most diverse land Found in the northwest United States

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28

Mountains

Mountains do not fit the definition of biome Climate, plants, and animals vary by elevation As go up, the temperature and abiotic factors change by

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29

polar regions

Not considered a biome because it is ice masses and not true land with soil, high-latitude, cold regions around the north and south poles.Thick layer of ice that never fully melts. Border tundra and at high latitude and cold all year. Average winter temp -30 degrees. Summer (in some areas) warm enough for vegetables to grow

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30

Freshwater ecosystems

rivers and streams, lakes and ponds, and freshwater wetlands.Plant and animal survive in half salt concentrated water

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31

rivers and streams

areas of flowing water often originating from underground sources in mountains or hills.Water flows one way; slope determines the flow. Characteristics change during the journey. When there is wind there is lots of oxygen. When there is fast current the land gets eroded faster. Fast current = no sediment unless animals. Slow current = sediment and more animals.

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32

Lakes and ponds

An inland body of standing water In winter, water temperature stays the same In summer, warmer water stays on top and colder water on the bottom

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33

Turnover

Top and bottom layers of the water mix to same temperature in fall and spring

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34

Stratification

Cold water denser than warm water Sediment goes to the top in Fall Mix water and nutrients

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35

Oligotrophic

a condition of a lake or other body of water characterized by low nutrients, low productivity, and high oxygen levels in the water column.Nutrient poor lakes often found in High mountains

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36

Eutropic

Nutrient rich lakes often in lower altitudes

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37

Eutropic as 3 zones based on amount of sunlight hitting water

Littoral Zone - closest to the shore, shallow, so sunlight hits the bottom, most organisms Limnetic Zone - Open water, well lit, many plankton Profundal Zone - Little light, colder, decrease oxygen, not many species

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38

Plankton

free-floating photosynthetic autotrophs that live in freshwater or marine ecosystems

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39

Transitional Aquatic Ecosystem

wetlands and estuaries

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40

Wetlands

a lowland area, such as a marsh or swamp, that is saturated with moisture, especially when regarded as the natural habitat of wildlife. Supports aquatic plants

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41

Estuaries

An ecosystem where freshwater from rivers or streams and sodium chloride and water from ocean meet Places of transition, among most diverse ecosystems Similar to salt marshes Species used as a nursery for young

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42

Marine Ecosystems

3 Main categories Pelagic Zone, photic zone, Aphotic zone

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43

intertidal zone

the narrow band of coastline between the levels of high tide and low tide. 4 categories: Spray zone, High-tide zone, Mid-tide zone, Low-tide

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44

Spray Zone

Sprayed with salt water only during high tide

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45

High tide zone

Underwater only during high tide

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46

Mid tide zone

Organisms here are adapted to long periods of being in air or water

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47

Low tide zone

Covered with water and less tide is unusually low; area of intertidal zone most populated with animals and plants

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48

Photic zone

To 200 m deep. Zone of the ocean penetrated by light. Autotrophs includes seaweed and plankton. Many species of animals here

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49

Aphotic zone

Below 200 m in depth. No light reaches this zone. Constantly dark and generally cold

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50

Pelagic Zone

Water column of the ocean

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51

Abyssal zone

Deepest region of ocean, very cold, relies on food materials from zones above (except at hydrothermal vents)

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52

Benthic zone

Area a long ocean floor consisting of sand, salt, and dead organisms. Sunlight may reach here in shallow areas of the ocean

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53

Coral Reefs

Most diverse ecosystem, in warm shallow marine water, makes natural barriers

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54

Corals

Soft bodied invertebrate that live in stone like structure. Photosynthetic. Eat plankton with tentacles. Sensitive to environmental change.

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55

population density

Number of individuals per unit area

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56

spatial distribution

physical location of geographic phenomena across space. Depends on availability of resources. 3 main types: uniform, clumped, and random

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57

Population range

area throughout which a population occurs

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58

population limiting factors

environmental factors that restrict population growth

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59

density-independent factors

limiting factor that affects all populations in similar ways, regardless of population size. Abiotic. Ex. wildfires

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60

density-dependent factors

A limiting factor of a population wherein large, dense populations are more strongly affected than small, less crowded ones. Depends on number members in a population per a unit area. Biotic. Ex. Disease

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61

population growth rate

explains how fast a given population grows. Effected by natality, mortality, emigrated, and immigration.

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62

Natality

birth rate

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63

mortality

death rate

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64

Emigration

Migration from a location

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65

Immigration

Migration to a new location

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66

exponential growth model

growth model that estimates a population's future size after a period of time based on the intrinsic growth rate and the number of reproducing individuals currently in the population. S-shape

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67

logistic growth

Growth pattern in which a population's growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth

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68

carrying capacity

Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support

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69

r-strategist

reproduce early in life; many small unprotected offspring. Adapted for many changes in their environments. Do not reach carrying capacity.

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70

K-strategist

reproduce late in life; few offspring; care for offspring. Adapted for environment of predictable change (stable environments). Equal to carrying capacity

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71

Extinction

A term that typically describes a species that no longer has any known living individuals. As increase, biosphere's biodiversity decreases

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72

Biodiversity

The number of different species in an area. Stability of ecosystem

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73

genetic diversity

The range of genetic material present in a gene pool or population of a species. Increase the chance of individuals surviving a changing environment/ disease. Increases toward the equator/ tropics from the poles

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74

species diversity

Number of different species in the biological community

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75

ecosystem diversity

the variety of ecosystems within a given region

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76

3 values of biodiversity

direct economic value, indirect economic value, and aesthetic and scientific value

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77

direct economic value

Humans depend on plant and animals for food, clothes, energy, medicine, and shelter. Preserving genetic diversity for possible source of desired genes

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78

indirect economic value

Healthy ecosystems give protection of water, keep and make soil, decompose waste, and climate. Less money to maintain than using technology

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79

genetic engineering

Process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms

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80

Watershed

The land area that supplies water to a the same place

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81

aesthetic and scientific value

the beauty that nature provides and the value of being able to study nature are important aspects that are not easily measured

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82

background extinction

gradual process of a species becoming extinct naturally. Not concerning to scientists.

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83

mass extinction

event in which a large percentage of all living species become extinct in a relatively short period of time. Last one was 65 million YA

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84

natural resources

Materials or substances such as minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain

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85

Overexploitation

excessive use of species that have economic value

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86

habitat loss

The destruction of habitats that usually results from human activities

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87

destruction of habitat

clearing of a region that wipes out a habitat, causes the population to either emigrate ro new location or risk extinction. Decrease in species lead to decrease in other species

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88

habitat fragmentation

Splitting of ecosystems into small fragments. Fewer species, reduces the opportunity for individuals to reproduce. Less genetically diverse population so less able to adapt to their environment.

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89

edge effect

the condition in which, at ecosystem boundaries, there is greater species diversity and biological density than there is in the heart of ecological communities.

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90

keystone species

A species that influences the survival of many other species in an ecosystem

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91

biological magnification

increasing concentration of a harmful substance in organisms at higher trophic levels in a food chain or food web

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92

eutophication

the buildup over time of nutrients in freshwater that leads to an increase in growth of algae

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introduced species

nonnative species that are either intentionally or unintentionally transported to a new habitat. No threat to biodiversity in native habitat, but is nonnative are a threat.

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94

renewable resource

A natural resource that can be replaced at the same rate at which the resource is consumed

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95

nonrenewable resource

A natural resource that is not replaced in a useful time frame.

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96

Sustainable use

The use of a resource in ways that maintain the resource at a certain quality for a certain period of time

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97

biodiversity hotspots

Relatively small areas of land that contain an exceptional number of endemic species and are at high risk from human activities

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98

Corridors

a strip of natural habitat that connects separated populations

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99

Restoring Ecosystems

bioremediation and biological augmentation

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100

Bioremediation

The use of living organisms to detoxify and restore polluted and degraded ecosystems

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