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Carbon

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Carbon

Life's molecular diversity is based on the properties of _____

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Organic Compounds

_______ are molecules that are carbon-based and must have at least CH in it, sometimes O.

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Isomers

_____ are compounds with the same formula but different structures. Since structure determines the function, these may have different functions.

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Hydrocarbons, methane

_______ are molecules with only carbon and hydrogen. ____, CH4, is an example of this.

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Length, double bonds, branching, rings

The four ways in which carbon skeletons can vary: __________

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Fats

Hydrocarbons are rare in living organisms but can be found sometimes, such as the hydrocarbon chains that ____ have.

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4

Carbon has ___ valence electrons, meaning it can bond a lot which is why it is so important.

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Chemical

A few _____ groups are key to the functioning of biological molecules

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Functional

______ groups are polar and affect a molecule's function by participating in chemical reactions

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Hydrophilic

_____: water loving

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Hydrophobic

_____: water hating

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OH

Hydroxyl group formula

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C=O

Carbonyl group formula

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COOH

Carboxyl group formula

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NH2

Amino group formula

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OPO3

Phosphate group formula

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CH3

Methyl group formula

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SH

Sulfhydryl group formula

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Alcohols

Organic compounds containing hydroxyl groups are called ______

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Reactive

The more hydroxyl groups something has, the more ____ it is

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carbon skeleton

Carbonyl groups can be found in a ______

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Carbonyl, hydroxyl

Simple sugars have _____ and _____ groups

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Ketone, less, fructose

A ____ is when the carbonyl group is not at the end, and it is ____ reactive. An example is _____

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Aldehyde, very, glucose

A ________ is when the carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon skeleton, and it is ____ reactive. An example is _____

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Acid, contributing

A carboxyl group can act as an _____, ____ H+ to a solution

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Carboxylic

Things with carboxyl groups are called ______ acids.

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Base, taking

An amino group can act as a _____, ______ H+ from a solution

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Amines

Things with amino groups are called ______

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Proteins, amino, carboxyl

Amino acids are the building blocks of _____, which have an ____ and ____ group.

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Organic phosphates, adenosine triphosphate

Things with phosphate groups are called _______. _______ (ATP) is an example of this.

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Methylated compounds, genes

Things with methyl groups are called _______ and affect the expression of ______.

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Disulfide bridge, hydrogen gas

Sulfhydryl groups bonded together form a _________ and a byproduct is _______

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Macromolecules

_________ are gigantic molecules, such as carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids

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Polymers

_____ are chains of small molecules

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Monomers

_______ are building blocks of polymers

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Hydrolysis

________ is the reaction that breaks polymers into monomers

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Dehydration

The ______ reaction is the reaction that links monomers together

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Enzymes

_______ are specialized macromolecules (protein) that speed up chemical reactions in cells (catalyst)

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CH2O

Monosaccharides are always a multiple of ______

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C6H12O6

Glucose has a formula of ________

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Hydroxyl, carbonyl

Sugars have some _____ groups and one ____ group

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rings

When a monosaccharide is in an aqueous solution, it has the form of _____

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Hydrophobic

Lipids share the same ______ trait

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Hydrocarbon

Fat molecules have _____ chains

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Saturated

_____ fat: has no double bond

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Unsaturated

_____ fat: has at least 1 double bond

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Trans

_____ fat: was changed from unsaturated fat to saturated by adding hydrogen

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C-H

Fats are hydrophobic because the _____ bonds are nonpolar in the tails

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Amino acids

_______ are the backbones of proteins

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N-C-C

An amino acid has the backbone of:

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Peptide

Amino acids are joined together through ____ bonds

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Amino, carboxyl

Protein is an ____ group connected to a carbon (with R group) connected to _____ group.

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Globular, fibrous

The shape of a protein can be referred to as _____ or ______

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Phosphate, CH2, deoxyribose, nitrogenous

A nucleotide is a _____ group connected to _____ connected to _______ (sugar) connected to a ______ base (which can be A, T, C, or G)

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Polynucleotide

A _______ is a bunch of nucleotides connected

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Sugar-phosphate

A polynucleotide has a ______ backbone

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Adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine

Nitrogenous bases: ____, ____ (or uracil), ____, ____

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Thymine

Adenine bonds with _______ (or uracil)

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Guanine

Cytosine bonds with _____

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Uracil

RNA has _____ instead of thymine

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Double-helix

Two polynucleotides twist to form a ______ which is DNA

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Transcription, translation

The process of building a protein: DNA --> _____ to RNA --> _____ to Protein

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Ester

An ____ bond bonds fatty acids to the glycerol backbone

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Phosphodiester

A _________ bond

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Phosphate group

What functional group is a buffer?

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