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Aristotle (Geocentric)

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1

Aristotle (Geocentric)

  • Experiment and reason

  • discovered the five elements

  • round earth experiments (Gravity, constellations, lunar eclipse)

  • Moon phases

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Aristarchus (Heliocentric)

  • 1,700 years before copernicus’ discoveries

  • sun,moon, sizes and distance from earth

  • stars, suns and parallax and the earth’s rotation

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Eratosthenes (Geocentric)

  • invented geography

  • measured size and tilt of earth

  • alexandria — syene (Aswan)

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4

Hipparchus (Geocentric)

  • Developed trigonometry

  • created greatest star maps to date

  • discovered precession

  • created stellar magnitude system

  • developed reliable methods for predicting eclipse

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5

Ptolemy (Geocentric)

  • Deferent and Epicycle

  • Equant

  • Retrograde motion

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6

Copernicus (Heliocentric)

  • Planetary configuration

  • conjuctions (Plains, Inferior, Superior)

  • Oppositions

  • Quadrature

  • Elongation

  • Transit

  • Twilight Zone

  • Retrograde Motion

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7

Tycho (Geocentric)

  • Save the geocentric

  • tychonic planetary system

  • supernova 1572

  • comet 1577

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8

Kepler (Helliocentric)

  • Three laws of planetary motion

  • law of eclipses

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9

Kepler’s laws of planetary motion

  • planets travel around the sun in eclipses with the sun at one focus

  • the straight line joining the the sun and the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times

  • the straight of siderial period of planet is in direct proportion to the cube of the semimajor axis (Distance to the sun) of its orbit

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10

Newton’s Law of Motion

  1. Inertia - a body at rest styes at rest or in motion in motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an outside force

  2. Acceleration - A change in motion is directly proportional to the force acting on it and in the direction of that force

  3. (Action/Reactions) To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

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Newton’s law of gravitational

Between any two objects anywhere in space there exists a force of attraction that is in direct

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12

Galileo

  • Pendulum

  • Objects Fall at Same rate due to earth’s central force (Gravity)

  • Inertia ( foundations for newtons laws )

  • light speed

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Galileo’s moon observations

  • moon

  • sun

  • jupiter

  • venus

  • saturn

  • milky way

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14

Isaac Newton (Heliocentric)

  • Calculus

  • Light (Spectrum)

  • Reflecting telescope

  • three laws of motion (Inertia, acceleration, action/reaction)

  • universal law of gravitation

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15

Halley (Heliocentric)

  • Diving bell

  • Mathematically verified Newton’s Theory of gravity

  • Discovered proper motion of Stars

  • Discovered some comets are periodic

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16

Heliocentric

theorizes that the sun is the center of the solar system

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17

Geocentric

argues that the earth is the center of the solar system

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18

Lippershey

“Invented the telescope” was the first to patent the tool

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19

Cassegrain

Lauren Cassegrain invented the cassegrain reflector

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20

Schmidt

Also known as the schmidt telescope

<p>Also known as the schmidt telescope</p>
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21

Herschel

  • discovered infrared

  • discovered uranus

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22

Huygens

Christian Huygens discovered the light waves theory, he believes that light travels like a wave

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23

Maxwell

came up with a different Ideal and liked newtons idea of light traveling was huscular — accepted the idea of hilance aka light being an idea

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24

Romer

discovered that light takes time to travel

Light travels 136,400 miles per second

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25

Michelson

a physicist and does astronomy from australia, set up an experiment for the speed of light

  • invented the eight sied mirror rotating

  • 186,282 miles per second for the speed of light

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26

speed of light (mps)

186,282 miles per second

  • 5,800,000,000,000 miles

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27

jansky

Discovered radio astronomy, invented the radio telescope

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28

Reber

reber had mapped the radio structure of our galaxy and discovered radio raves outside of our galaxy

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29

Einstein

  • created what we know as photons which is particles of energy

  • concluded that night is not just a wave or a particle but a particle known as a waveacle of energy

  • gravity waves

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30

Gravity

Galileo was the first to discover the effects of gravity

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31

Altitude

the apparent height, is the angle between the object and the observer’s local horizion

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32

Azimuth

when an angle is between 0 and 90 degrees and is measured from true north and increasingly upwards

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33

Degree’s

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34

Hours

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35

Earth’s tilt

Earth is tilted 23.5’

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36

Latitude

up and down

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37

longitude

horizontally

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38

ROYGBIV

Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet

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39

Precession

  • discovered by hipparchus

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40

Zenith

the high point - the very top of the sky

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41

Nadir

the lowest point of the fortune

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42

Meridian

a line of longitude that we say is the beginning

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43

North Pole

the northermost point on the earth

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44

South Pole

below the equator

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45

Equator

is the center of the earth

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46

Celestial Pole

the equator of the sky

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47

tropic of cancer

lies at the 23rd 26’33 23.439 north of the equator and marks the most northerly latitude at which the sun can appear directly at noon

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48

tropics of capricorn

23rd 26’22 (23.5) degrees

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49

Antartic circle

66.5 degrees

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50

Arctic circle

66 degrees and 33’ north of the equator

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51

International Date Line

in the pacific ocean and it is to keep things in order and separates the time and day

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52

Right Ascension (Longitude)

hours, minutes, seconds *due to changing rotation

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53

Declination (latitude)

degrees, minutes, secons

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54

Ecliptic

the time of a planet going around a sun

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55

planetary configuration

especially significant apparent position of a planet

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56

syzygy

the alignment of inferior and superior planets

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57

Retrograde motion

was on the epicycle, when a fast planet passes a slow planet, the slower planet will appear to be moving backwards

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58

Inferior conjunction

occurs when the planets are approximately between Earth and the sun

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59

Superior Conjunction

when the inferior planets is in alignment or opposite side of the earth

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60

Conjuction

an apparent

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61

lunar phases

  • new moon

  • waxing crescent

  • first quarter

  • waxing gibbous

  • full moon

  • wanning gibbous

  • last quarter

  • waning crescent

  • new moon

<ul><li><p>new moon </p></li><li><p>waxing crescent </p></li><li><p>first quarter </p></li><li><p>waxing gibbous </p></li><li><p>full moon </p></li><li><p>wanning gibbous </p></li><li><p>last quarter </p></li><li><p>waning crescent </p></li><li><p>new moon </p></li></ul>
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62

inferior planet

mercury, venus

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63

syzygy

the alignment of inferior and superior planets

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64

Retrograde motion

was on the epicycle, when a fast planet passes a slow planet, the slower planet will appear to be moving backwards

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65

Inferior conjunction

occurs when the planets are approximately between Earth and the sun

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66

Superior Conjunction

when the inferior planets is in alignment or opposite side of the earth

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67

Quadrature

between the sun the earth and the planet you have a right angle that forms, it can be east or west

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68

Jovian Planets

Gas giants, a group of 4 planets that are in the solar system and they compromise the outer planets

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69

Terrestial planets

they have a compact, rocky surface, like earths terra firma

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70

Insolation

is the amount of solar radiation recieved on a given surface in a given time period.

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71

Equinox

23rd of september

the period of day-time is equal to the period of nighttime

daylight savings

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72

Solstice

the point where the sun appears to reach the highest or the lowest point in the sky for years

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73

seasons

fall,winter,spring,summer the suns direct rays

  • so when the north pole tilts towards the sun it is summer in the northern hemisphere

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74

solar eclipses

only occur if there is perfect alignment and szyygy

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75

lunar eclipses

occur when the moon moves into its shadow - last 6-7 minutes

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76

synchronous rotation

describes the rotation of an object that always shows the same face to an object that is orbitting because its rotation period and orbital period are the same

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77

synotic

the perfect alignment from where we began and where we land 29 and half degrees

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78

sidereal period

360 degrees of motion - perfect circle

— 27 and 1/3 says but you arent in a straight line and need extra time and 29 and a half days to get back

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79

deferent

created so that the planet would go around the epicycle as thew epicycle is going around the deferent which is centered around the equate

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80

epicycle

geometric model used to explain the variations in speed and direction of the motion of the moon and the sun and the planets — in a circular motion

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81

orbit

regular repeating path that one object in space takes around another one

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82

greatest elongation

when a planet appears farthest from the sun as viewed from the earth

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83

perigee

the point of the closest approach to the earth

— moving at its maximum speed

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84

synchronous rotation

describes the rotation of an object that always shows the same face to an object that is orbitting because its rotation period and orbital period are the same

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85

synotic

the perfect alignment from where we began and where we land 29 and half degrees

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86

plutoids

named after plutos, objects just like pluto in structure — just like pluto in structure

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87

Perihelion

the close point between the earth and the sun

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88

aphelion

far point from the sun and the sun looks a lot smaller in july we were 4 million miles away

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89

orbit

regular repeating path that one object in space takes around another one

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90

TNO‘s

Any celestial object in our solar system whose orbit lies beyond neptune, including pluto

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91

greatest elongation

when a planet appears farthest from the sun as viewed from the earth

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92

comets

objects with a large trail there are comets that form

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93

angstroms

extremely small units only 1 centimeter

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94

red light

long wavelength

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95

blue light

shorter wavelength

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96

speed of light

wavelength x frequency = the speed of light

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97

wavelength

the distance between succesive crests of a wave especially points in a sound wave or electromagnetic wave

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98

Refracting telescope

uses the front of the lens, objective lens in the front end

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99

reflector telescope

uses a mirror

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100

cassegrain

cassegram designed for camera work and was made for the design of reflecting telescopes

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