Topic 1 - Cellular Biology

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

70s Ribosomes

1 / 157

Tags and Description

158 Terms

1

70s Ribosomes

Ribosomes that are smaller in size and freer in cytoplasm, used for protein synthesis.

New cards
2

80s Ribosomes

Larger ribosomes in eukaryotic cells that are made up of a smaller 30s subunit and a larger 50s subunit and are often associated with different cell organelles.

New cards
3

Active Transport

A process that allows the cell to take in substances even though there is a higher concentration in the cell; molecules enter a protein pump, and ATP is used.

New cards
4

Adult Stem Cells

The daughter cell of an embryonic stem cell, they have limited functions, and are multipotent.

New cards
5

Amphipathic

Substances that are both attracted and not attracted to water.

New cards
6

Anaphase

The stage in mitosis where the sister chromatids split into individual chromosomes, and each chromosome is pulled to an opposite pole by the centriole.

New cards
7

Apoptosis

A natural part of the cell cycle where cells that are no longer useful undergo cell suicide.

New cards
8

Artificial Insemination

When sperm collected from sperm banks is inserted into a woman's cervix by a doctor.

New cards
9

Asexual Reproduction

When an organism reproduces by making a copy of itself. Offspring are clones and there is not much genetic variation.

New cards
10

Axons

Parts of neuron that convey messages rapidly in an electrical form called a nerve impulse.

New cards
11

Bilayer

Composed of two molecules in which each molecule is arranged with its hydrophobic end directed inward toward the opposite side of the film and its hydrophilic end directed outward.

New cards
12

Binary Fission

A form of asexual reproduction where the parent cell divides into two genetically identical daughter cells.

New cards
13

Cancer

A deadly disease where DNA is accidentally changed in the cell cycle, which allows cancer cells to divide uncontrollably.

New cards
14

Carcinogens

Cancer causing chemicals

New cards
15

Cell

The smallest living unit of life.

New cards
16

Cell Membrane

The protective barrier around the cell.

New cards
17

Cell Replacement Therapy

The transplantation of stem cells to replace damaged cells.

New cards
18

Cell Specialization

The process in which a cell becomes specialized to perform a specific function.

New cards
19

Cell Theory

The theory that: The cell is the building block of life, all living organisms are composed of one or more cells, and all cells come from pre-existing cells.

New cards
20

Cell Wall

A rigid frame that provides the cell support, strength and protection. Only in plants (cellulose microfibrils ) and prokaryotic cells (peptidoglycan).

New cards
21

Centrioles

Organize microtubules during mitosis. Only in animals.

New cards
22

Channels

They have diameter and chemical properties that ensure that only one type of particle can pass through.

New cards
23

Functions of Life

Made of cells, respond to changes in the environment, can reproduce, exchanges energy and matter with the environment, has metabolism, maintains homeostasis, can grow.

New cards
24

Chlorophyll

The green pigment in plants that allows cells to absorb energy from the sun.

New cards
25

Chloroplast

Contains chlorophyll used for photosynthesis. Only in plants.

New cards
26

Cholesterol

Part lipid, part protein. Make phospholipids more tightly packed and regulate the fluidity and flexibility of the membrane.

New cards
27

Chromatid

Formed when the cell undergoes mitosis or meiosis, is one half of a chromosome.

New cards
28

Chromatin

Uncondensed genetic information that is contained inside the nucleus.

New cards
29

Chromosome

Formed by two identical chromatids and carries important genetic information.

New cards
30

Cillia

Hair-like organelles which moves materials around and prevents pathogens from invading the body.

New cards
31

Cisternae

Flattened membrane sacs.

New cards
32

Conjugation

A form of sexual reproduction where bacteria transfer genetic material by fusing together to form offspring.

New cards
33

Cyclins

Proteins that help to regulate the cell cycle

New cards
34

Cytokinesis

Where the cytoplasm divides, the plasma membrane pinches and constricts and the membrane fuses and seals with the addition of new membrane formed.

New cards
35

Cytoplasm

A jelly-like substance that surrounds the organelles.

New cards
36

Cytoskeleton

An internal network of fibres that helps to maintain the cell's shape.

New cards
37

Davson-Danielli Model

A model that suggests that the protein membrane looks like a sandwich, that proteins form distinct layers and contains phospholipids

New cards
38

Falsification of Davson-Danielli Model

Fluorescent antibody tagging of membrane proteins showed they were mobile and not fixed in place, Freeze fracturing was used to split open the membrane and revealed irregular rough surfaces within the membrane

New cards
39

Dermis

The inner layer of the skin which is composed of connective and muscular tissues.

New cards
40

Diameter of Field View Equation

Diameter of high power/diameter of low power = magnification of low power/magnification of high power

New cards
41

Drawing of a Eukaryotic Cell

When drawing this cell, please include cell membrane, nucleus, rough endoplasmic reticulum with 80s ribosomes, golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and free 80s ribosomes. If necessary, include a chloroplast with thylakoids and a large vacuole.

New cards
42

Drawing of a Prokaryotic Cell

When drawing this cell, please include 70s ribosomes, cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleoid, pili, and flagella. Use e.coli as the reference cell type.

New cards
43

Ectoderm

Cells that give rise to cells that form the skin and nervous system.

New cards
44

Electron Micrograph

A graphic representation of an image of an object under an electron microscope.

New cards
45

Embryonic Stem Cells

The main type of stem cells containing embryos, these cells can specialize to perform any function, and are pluripotent.

New cards
46

Endocrine Gland Cells

Cells that are involved in the control of appetite, digestive processes, and metabolism and an important source of hormones.

New cards
47

Endocytosis

A process in which a vesicle is formed on the inside of the plasma membrane and allows water, solutes, and larger molecules that cannot pass through the cell membrane to enter the cell.

New cards
48

Endoderm

Cells that give rise to cells that form the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract.

New cards
49

Endosymbiotic Theory

The relationship in which one cell lives inside of the other and in some cases, one cell cannot live without the other.

New cards
50

Epidermal Tissue

An outer coating that is involved in water entering roots and gases entering and leaving leaf.

New cards
51

Epidermis

The outer layer of the skin which is composed of epithelial tissues.

New cards
52

Epithelial Tissue

The tissue that lines body cavities and outer surface of body, and forms a protective barrier.

New cards
53

Eukaryotic Cells

Cells that contain a nucleus to hold DNA and membrane-bound organelles as well as 80s ribosomes.

New cards
54

Evidence for Endosymbiotic Theory

Ultrastructure of organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplast resembles some bacterial structure, they have DNA, and can move freely around the cell.

New cards
55

Exocrine Gland Cells

Cells that secrete products into the digestive tract like bile and pancreatic juice that also help secrete digestive enzymes which break down food in the small intestine.

New cards
56

Exocytosis

A process in which a vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and releases contents such as waste products and unwanted material out of the cell.

New cards
57

External Fertilization

When gametes meet outside of an adult to begin forming a new organism.

New cards
58

Extracellular

Components of the cell that are outside of the cells main body.

New cards
59

Facilitated Diffusion

Ions and other particles that cannot diffuse between phospholipids can pass in or out of cells if there are channels for them.

New cards
60

Flagella

A tail-like structure that acts as a propulsion for a cell which allows it to move.

New cards
61

Function of Proteins

Transport, anchorage, receptors, cell recognition, enzymatic activity, and intercellular joining.

New cards
62

Fungi Hyphae Cells

These cells differentiate from cell theory by being multinucleated and having continuous cytoplasm along the hyphae with no end cell wall or cell membrane.

New cards
63

G1 Phase

The stage in interphase where the cell produces new cells and proteins.

New cards
64

G2 Phase

The stage in interphase where the cell produces organelles and structures needed for cell division.

New cards
65

Gametes

Sperm and egg cells which have half as many chromosomes as a body cell.

New cards
66

Gene Therapy

The process of replacing absent or faulty genes with normal ones to treat diseases.

New cards
67

Genes

Things that make up your DNA which determine certain traits in organisms.

New cards
68

Giant Algae Cells

These cells differentiate from cell theory because they can grow up to 100 mm despite having only one nucleus.

New cards
69

Glycolipid

A sugar chain attached to a phospholipid.

New cards
70

Glycoprotein

A sugar chain attached to a membrane protein.

New cards
71

Golgi Apparatus

Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum for delivery.

New cards
72

Histone Proteins

Associated with DNA.

New cards
73

Homeostasis

The steady state that is maintained by an organism which is necessary for survival.

New cards
74

Hydrophilic

Substances that are attracted to water.

New cards
75

Hydrophobic

Substances that are not attracted to water.

New cards
76

Hypertonic

Where there is a net movement of water out of the cell which causes the cell to shrink and shrivel.

New cards
77

Hypotonic

Where there is a net movement of water in the cell which causes the cell to expand and rupture.

New cards
78

In-Vitro Fertilization

When sperm and eggs are collected in petri dishes where fertilization occurs and the developing embryo is injected into the womb of a female.

New cards
79

Integral Proteins

A protein that is hydrophobic on part of its surface and embedded in hydrocarbon chains in the centre of the membrane, many are transmembrane (extend across the cell membrane).

New cards
80

Internal Fertilization

When gametes meet inside of a female to begin forming a new organism.

New cards
81

Interphase

This takes place when the cell is preparing for cell division.

New cards
82

Isotonic

Where the net movement of water in and out of the cell is the same and the cell stays the same size.

New cards
83

Karyotype

The preparation of the complete set of an individual's chromosomes.

New cards
84

Liposome

A bilayer of phospholipids.

New cards
85

Lymphoid Cells

Any cell types responsible for the immune system.

New cards
86

Magnification Equation

Magnification = size of image/actual size of specimen.

New cards
87

Malignant

Harmful and cancerous tumours that have the potential to spread throughout the body.

New cards
88

Meiosis

Occurs only through sexual reproduction when one cell divides twice to form four daughter cells containing half the chromosomes of the parent cell.

New cards
89

Meristematic Tissue

This unspecialized plant tissue can divide by mitosis.

New cards
90

Mesoderm

Cells that give rise to cells that form bone, cartilage, connective tissue, and the majority of the circulatory system.

New cards
91

Metabolism

Chemical reactions in a cell.

New cards
92

Metaphase

The stage in mitosis where the chromosomes move to the middle and the mitotic spindles from the centrioles attach to the centromere.

New cards
93

Metastatic

Tumours that have already travelled and grown in other areas of the body.

New cards
94

Micelle

A single layer of phospholipids.

New cards
95

Microtubules

These move chromosomes during cell division.

New cards
96

Mitochondria

The powerhouse of the cell, produces ATP, made up of cristae (folds in the inner membrane of mitochondria).

New cards
97

Mitosis

This is when a parent cell is dividing to form two daughter cells.

New cards
98

Mitotic Index

Number of cells in mitosis/total number of cells * 100

New cards
99

Multipotent Cells

These cells can differentiate into committed precursors of each cell type, their ability to differentiate into cell types is limited to what type of multipotent cells they are.

New cards
100

Mutagens

Agents that cause gene mutations

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 85 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(10)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 97 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 24 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard53 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard26 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard36 terms
studied byStudied by 93 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard110 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard89 terms
studied byStudied by 155 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 182 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)