Cardiovascular sytem and blood

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What is the heart?

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Biology

12th

120 Terms

1

What is the heart?

a hollow, muscular organ the size of a fist

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2

where is the heart located?

between the lungs

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3

What is the apex?

the "tip" of the heart

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4

where is the apex pointed?

towards the left hip

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5

what is the outer covering of the heart called?

the pericardium

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6

What is the space between the heart and pericardium called?

the cavity

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7

What is the middle/thickest layer of the inside of the heart called?

myocardium

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8

What is the function of the pericardium?

to protect and lubricate heart while it pumps

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9

why is the myocardium the yhickest layer of the heart?

responsible for pumping the heart, made of muscle

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10

What are the two loops that circulate blood back to the heart?

  1. Pulmonary Circuit

  2. Systemic Circuit

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11

What does the pulmonary circuit do?

it carries blood to the lungs (picks up oxygen and drops carbon dioxide)

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12

What does the systemic circuit do?

it carries blood to the body and back (drops off oxygen and picks up carbon dioxide)

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13

what color is oxygenated blood?

red

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14

what color is deoxygenated blood?

blue

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15

what are the 4 chambers of the heart?

  1. right and left atria

  2. right and left ventricles

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16

which two chambers contain oxygenated blood?

left atrium and left ventricle

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17

which two chambers contain deoxygenated blood?

right atrium and right ventricle

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18

what structure separates the two sides of the heart?

septum

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19

what structures cover the atria?

auricles

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20

what do the auricles do?

hold extra blood

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21

what is the function of valves within the heart?

to stop blood flowing backwards

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22

what are the 2 sets of valves?

  1. atrioventricular valves (between atria and ventricles)

  2. semilunar valves (between ventricles and major blood vessels.

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23

what are the different atrioventricular valves?

  1. tricuspid valves (between right atrium and right ventricle)

  2. bicuspid valve (between left atrium and left ventricle)

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24

what are the 2 different semilunar valves?

  1. pulmonary valves (from pulmonary artery)

  2. aortic valve (from the aorta)

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25

what is the path of the deoxygenated blood in the body?

body tissues - vena cavae - right atrium - right ventricle - pulmonary artery - lungs

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26

what is the path of the oxygenated blood in the body?

lungs - pulmonary veins - left atrium - left ventricle - aorta - body tissues

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27

what is the intrinsic conduction system?

sets the basic rhythm of the beating heart by generating impulses which stimulate the heart to contract.

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28

what is the path of the intrinsic conduction system?

SA node - AV node - AV bundle - bundle branches - Purkinje fibers

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29

what is another name for the SA node?

the cardiac pacemaker

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30

what is it called when the heart relaxes while beating?

diastole

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31

what is it called when the heart contracts while beating?

systole

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32

what happens during diastole?

  • atrial contraction (ventricles fill)

  • AV valves close causing lub sound

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33

what happens during systole?

  • ventricles contract

  • semilunar valves close causing dub sound

  • isovolumetric relaxation

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34

what is cardiac output?

how much blood is pumped out by each ventricle

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35

how do you calculate cardiac output?

heart rate x stroke volume

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36

what is stroke volume?

the volume of blood being pumped out by a ventricle in a heartbeat.

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37

what is stroke volume affected by?

rapid blood loss and exercise

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38

what is heart rate?

number of times your heart beats in a minute

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39

what is heart rate affected by?

stress, hormones, ion concentration and physical factors

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40

what are the three different types of blood vessels?

arteries, veins and capillaries

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41

what do arteries do?

  • pump away from the heart

  • carry oxygenated blood (except pulmonary)

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42

what do veins do?

  • carry blood to the heart

  • carry deoxygenated blood (except for pulmonary)w

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43

what do capillaries do?

location of gas exchange

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44

describe the flow of blood from artery to a vein.

artery - aterioles - capillaries - venuoles - vein

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45

why is it helpful for capillaries to only have one cell layer?

gas exchange is more effective

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46

what are the layers of the artery?

thick layer of muscle, lumen (where the blood flows)

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47

what are the layers of the vein?

thin layer of muscle, lumen (where the blood flows)

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48

which type of blood vessel receives high pressure blood?

arteries

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49

which type of blood vessel receives low pressure blood?

veins

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50

how do veins maintain blood pressure?

  1. muscular pumping - muscles contract, squeeze blood through veins

  2. one way valves

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51

how can capillary sphincters restrict blood flow?

sphincters can close off different parts and slow down blood flow.

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52

what are the functions of blood?

  1. transport oxygen waste and hormones/nutrients

  2. regualte body temperature, pH and fluid volume

  3. prevent infections and blood loss

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53

what is blood?

it is connective tissue made of cells suspended in a fluid matrix

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54

what are the suspended cells known as?

formed elements

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55

what is the fluid matrix known as?

plasma

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56

what is hematocrit?

percentage of red blood cells in blood

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57

what is the pH range of blood?

7.35 to 7.45

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58

how many litres of blood do you have in your body?

5-6 litres

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59

what is the composition of blood?

90% water and 10% dissolved gases, salts, minerals, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, waste and proteins

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60

what are the three basic types of proteins found in plasma?

  1. albumin - regulates osmosis between blood and tissues

  2. globins - transports substances and fights infections

  3. fibrinogens - used in blood clotting

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61

what regulates the composition of plasma?

homeostasis

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62

what are erythrocytes?

red blood cells

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63

what is the function of erythrocyte?

transporting oxygen around the body via hemoglobin molecules

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64

what is the structure of a erythrocyte and how does it help its function?

  • bioconcave shape allows for greater surface area

  • round sides make for efficient flow through blood vessels.

  • no nucleus & few organelles so they don't use up the oxygen while transporting it.

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65

why must oxygen be carried by erythrocytes?

oxygen is non-polar so it can't diffuse into the blood.

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66

what is hemoglobin?

a protein that is composed of 4 chains called globins

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67

what does each globin contain?

a flat molecule called a hemew

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68

what does a heme hold?

an iron atom, which can bind to one O2 molecule

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69

how many O2 molecules can one hemoglobin hold?

four

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70

what is a leukocyte?

white blood cell

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71

what is the funciton of leukocytes?

to protect the body from pathogens

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72

how is an erythrocyte different from a leukocyte?

  • very numerous

  • does not contain a nucleus

  • can live 100-120 days

  • confined to blood

  • consistent concentration

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73

how is a leukocyte different from an erythrocyte?

  • less numerous

  • has a nucleus

  • can live for few days to years

  • can pass out of blood vessels (diapedesis)

  • concentration fluctuates

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74

how are erythrocytes and leukocytes the same?

they are both formed elements

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75

what is granulocyte?

they are a type of leukocyte that have low shaped nuclei and visible granuoles

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76

what are some examples of granulocytes?

neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils

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77

what are agranulocytes?

they are leukocytes that have spherical/kidney shaped nuclei and no visible granuoles

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78

what are examples of agranulocyte?

lymphocyte and monocyte

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79

neutrophils (function, shape, abundance)

  • they engulf and destroy bacteria

  • granuoles with lobe shaped nuclei

  • most common leukocyte and more are produced during infection

  • 41-75% out of white blood cells

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80

eosinophils (function, shape, abundance)

  • kill parasitic worms ingested in food

  • lessen allergic reactions

  • granuoles with two-lobed nuclei

  • 1-5% out of white blood cells

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81

basophils (function, shape, abundance)

  • release histamines which dialate blood vessels so that other leukocytes can rush in to fight infection or allergen -granuole

  • 0-1% out of white blood cells

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82

lymphocytes (location, shape, abundance, types)

  • usually found in lymphnodes instead of blood stream

  • two types T cells and B cells

  • agranuoles with large spherical nuclei

  • 20-45% out of white blood cells

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83

monocytes (function, shape, abundance)

  • leave blood, enter surrounding tissues, become macrophages

  • agranuoles with kidney shaped nuclei

  • 3-8% out of white blood cells

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84

what is the mneumonic device for leukocytes?

Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils

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85

what are thrombocytes?

they are platelets

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86

what are thrombocytes made of?

tiny fragments of other cells

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87

what is the function of thrombocytes?

responsible for blood clotting

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88

what is the stimulating factor for producing blood cells?

hormones

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89

what is hemostasis?

when a blood vessel is injured, platelets begin the process of forming a blood clot

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90

what are the steps of hemostasis?

  1. blood vessels contract to reduce blood loss

  2. platelets chemically attract to the wound and stick together

  3. injured tissue releases tissue factor (cause production of thrombin)

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91

what does thrombin and fibronogen create?

fibrin mesh

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92

what is a thrombus?

an abnormal clot that forms within a blood vessel

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93

what is a thrombus called if it dislodges and floats through the blood?

embolus

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94

how does an abnormal clot affect the body?

restricts the blood flow and can cause stroke, heart attack and death

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95

what is an antigen?

a protein, peptide or polysaccharide that the body recognizes as friend or foe.

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96

what does the immune system produce in the presence of an antigen?

antibodies

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97

what does an antibody do to the antigens?

antibodies bind to the antigen and they clump together

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98

what is it called when antibodies clump together?

agglutination

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99

type A antigen and antibody

A antigens with anti-B antibody

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100

type B antigen and antibody

B antigens with anti-A antibody

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