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The 5 standards of nursing

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1

The 5 standards of nursing

  1. Provide clean and comfortable environment

  2. Provide fresh food and water

  3. Provide adequate exercise and grooming

  4. Provide prompt and humane relief of suffering

  5. Provide human treatment to every patient

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2

The benefits to bathing and grooming

Give animal a sense of well being

Prevent medical conditions

Treatment of medical condition to alleviate discomfort

Control of ectoparasites; medicated baths

Indication to client about quality of life

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3

What are the precautions when bathing and grooming

Avoid animal leaping out of tub

Teathered leashes

Temperature of water

Watching body temperatures

Protecting ears and eyes

Bathe all areas

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4

Why is it not wise to use cage heaters

The pets often get over heated and no one checks on them

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5

What are medicated dips

Apply medication and leave on, for skin mites

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6

What are the benefits to exercise

Helps to maintain muscle tone and reduce edema

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7

What is the purpose of nail trims

Prevent over growth of nails, and lameness

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8

True/False: over grown nails have longer quicks

True

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9

What is the issue with hair inside the ears of dogs

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10

True/False:

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11

What is the problem with cleaning ears of anesthetized patients

Anesthetized patients cannot react to pain, extreme caution needs to be used when cleaning their ears

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12

True/False: cleaning ears when they are not dirty is good preventative care

False, cleaning the ears when they are not dirt can lead to infection

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13

What is an aural hematoma?

Blood vessel in the pina of the ear ruptures and fills with blood. Common to be 2nd to ear infections

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14

Where are the 2 anal glands located

In the rectum and about the 5 o clock and 7 o clock position

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15

When do animals release a small amount of anal gland substance

Every time it poops

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16

What are signs of an animal being in discomfort from its anal glands

Scooting the rear end, licking or chewing at rear end, abnormal carriage of the tail

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17

What is the only way to ensure all the substance from anal glands gets released

Doing expressions internally

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18

If the anal gland substance is green, what can this indicate

There is an infection

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19

Why are blankets and towels with holes dangerous

Can lead to strangulation

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20

What are decubital sores

Bed sores from non-ambulatory/non-mobile patients or limited mobility, can be located on elbows, hips, hocks

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21

Other than lack of mobility, what is another way animals can develop decubital sores

Fecal or urine scalding from the ammonia which can lead to a skin tissue injury

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22

How often should non-mobile patients be moved

Very frequently with rotation of blankets and positioning to prevent decubital sores

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23

What is the best kind of bedding but is not routine

Straw

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24

How will one know if the anal gland has been expressed

Won’t be able to feel the anal gland anymore

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25

3 goals in restraining a patient

Control animal for procedure

Prevent animal from injury

Prevent injury to the staff

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26

What is the golden rule to restraint

Use the minimum amount if restraint needed to be effective

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27

What is an agonistic behavior

behavior associated with conflict, causes stress to an animal

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28

Why is taking an accurate history important

for diagnosis

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29

What is a chief complaint

Why an owner brought the animal in

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30

A chief complaint and ____________ should be similar to each other

Observations

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31

What questions should be asked when taking a patients history

Open ended questions, avoiding yes or no answers in order to get more information out of the owner

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32

What goes into a signalment

Breed, Sex, Reproductive status, age

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33

What are the 5 components to a patients history

Chief complaint, past medical surgery history, environmental history, medication history, dietary history

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34

What questions should you ask when taking a chief complaint

Duration, severity progression + frequency, trigger situations, time of day, characteristics

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35

On physical exams, exams can be done 1 of what 2 ways

Body systems, or head to tail

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36

What type of physical exam is more common

Head to tail

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37

What is the largest body system

Integument system

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38

What does alopecia mean

Hair loss

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39

When doing a physical exam of the integument system what is to be looked at

Hair, skin, hooves, glands, tumors, growths, lumps, masses, etc.

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40

What does hyperthyroidism look like in K9’s

overweight, bilateral symmetrical alopecia

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41

What is demodex

Type of mites with a pattern hair loss, can self resolve, non pruritic, looks like a cigar

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42

What is sarcoptic

Pruritic type of skin mite that can spread to other dogs, often leads to a second skin infection, zoonotic but self limiting, looks like a circle with legs

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43

What does pruritus mean

Itchy skin

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44

What does petechia mean

Pin point bruising, looks like a spider vein, found often on ear or on gums indicating there could be a blood condition

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45

What is the most common disease

Periodontal disease

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46

What percentage of animals have periodontal disease by 3 years old

70-80%

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47

What is megaesophagus

Where the esophagus is enlarged, hard to find on physical exam, need x-ray to see it enlarged

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48

What condition of the esophagus causes the esophagus to lose its tone and makes it more flimsy making it more prone to regurgitation

Megaesopahgus

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49

Dogs with megaesophagus often die from what

Aspiration pneumonia

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50

How do we aid in feeding dogs with megaesophagus

Feed from elevated surfaces, dog high chairs, playing with the texture of food

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51
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52

The stomach “bloat” is also known as

Gastric Dilation Volvulus (GDV)

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53
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54

What dogs are most susceptible to Gastric Dilation Volvulus

Great danes, large breed, deep chested dogs

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55

What is a gastropexy

Elective surgery for deep chested dogs where the stomach gets stitched to the side of the abdomen to avoid torsion

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56

How can Gastric Dilation Volvulus be avoided

Slowing down the dogs eating, making them relax after eating

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57

What is intussusception

intestines folding in on each other, telescoping

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58

What does the intestines feel like

Feels like thickened or doughy lasagna noodles

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59

What is a megacolon

Colon loses tone and becomes impacted with feces

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60

What is fecal incontenance

Can’t control defication

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61

What does perineal mean

Area around the rectum

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62

What is a perineal hernia

Break in muscles of the hind quarters, can lead to an intestinal slip through if not repaired

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63

The rate and rhythm of the heart is controlled by what

cardiac output

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64

What is cardiac output

amount of blood pumped out of the heart

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65

What is stroke volume

Volume of blood ejected by the left ventricle

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66

What is the cardiac output dependent on

heart rate, stroke volume

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67

True/False: heart rate increases and decreases with cardiac output

True

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68

What is the normal heart rate in beats per minute for Canines

60-160 bpm

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69

What is the normal heart rate in beats per minute for Cats

140-220 bpm

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70

What is tachycardia

increase in heart rate due to stress, excitement, exercise, or fever

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71

What is brachycardia

decrease in heart rate do to anesthetic drugs, or certain stages of shock

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72

What does auscultation mean

listening to the heart with a stethoscope

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73

The sound “lub” of the heart beating is what anatomically

mitral and tricuspid valve CLOSING

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74

The sound “dub” of the heart beating is what anatomically

pulmonic and aortic valves CLOSING

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75

Systole sound indicates what

in between lub and dub

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76

Diastole sound indicates what

between 2 beats, after the dub, before the lub

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77

What is a murmur

abnormal heart sound; reoccurring abnormal sound; result of excess turbulent blood; usually a valve disease

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78

What is myopathy

heart muscle being tick or thin, making blood extra turbulent

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79

True/False: thinner blood is more likely to be louder

True

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80

What is an innocent murmur

puppies and kittens less than 6 months of age having an increased heart rate due to more turbulent blood

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81

True/False: innocent murmurs are systolic murmurs

True

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82

This type of murmur develop commonly secondary to periodontal disease

Systolic

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83

Hearing a heart worm disease is most likely doing to sound like what kind of heart murmur

Diastolic

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84

What is a continuous murmur

Changes in intensity throughout the cardiac cycle, loudest mid systole and tapers off late diastole, often associated with conjunctival heart defect

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85

Patent Ductus Arterious resembles what sound

congestive heart failure

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86

What 2 things need to be done when a murmur is found

Classify where the murmur is happening, grade the murmur 1-6

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87

The rhythm of the heart is a result of what

contractions of the heart, dependent on the electrical impulses

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88

What do EKG’s show

Electrical impulses

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89

What does arrhythmia mean

no rhythm/pattern of the heart

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90

What is a sinus arrhythmia

in the K9 patients, considered normal with increases of the heart rate on inspiration and decreases on expiration

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91

Where is the most common place to obtain a pulse

femoral artery

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92

What 3 things are being looked at in a pulse

rate, rhythm, quality

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93

What is a pulse

Fluid wave created by blood being pumped into aorta during ventricular polarization

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94

What is a pulse influenced by

heart rate, stroke volume, force of ejection, vascular tone

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95

True/False: heart rate and pulse rate should be the same

True

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96

What is a pulse deficit

Not a pulse for every heart beat

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97

What is the only way to detect a pulse deficit

using a stethoscope to listen to the heart, and palpating the heart at the same time. If the numbers are not the same, there is some kind of arrhythmia

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98

What does an absent pulse indicate

deadness, heart is not beating enough to produce a pulse “heart block”

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99

What is saddle thromboembolism

Older cats having a blood clot that sits at the branch of the femoral arteries; won’t feel a pulse inside the leg, but there will be discoloration, cold to the touch, this is a death sentence and hard to fix

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100

What does a weak pulse indicate

“hypokinetic”, anything that causes decreases cardiac output, significantly decreasing heart rate/ cardiac output

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