Bis 2C MT 2

studied byStudied by 2 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

What is a plant?

1 / 106

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

107 Terms

1

What is a plant?

Autotrophic eukaryotic organism capable of converting light energy (solar radiation) into chemical energy (carbs) via the process of photosynthesis in the presence of chlorophyll inside chloroplasts.

New cards
2

gametophyte

haploid gamete plant that produces gametes by mitosis in gametangia

New cards
3

gametangia

multicellular organs of gametophyte that produces gametes by mitosis

New cards
4

archegonia

produce female gametes (egg cells)

New cards
5

antheridia

produce male gametes (sperm cells)

New cards
6

homosporous

  1. individual hermaphroditic plant makes both male and female gametes.

  2. only one type of sporangium in one sporophyte that produces one type of spore

New cards
7

heterosporous

  1. male and female gametangia occur on separate unisexual plants

  2. two types of sporangia on the sporophyte that produce two types of spores that give rise to 2 types of unisexual gametophytes

New cards
8

megagametophyte

female gametophyte haploid (n) plant that produces female gametes (eggs) in archegonia

New cards
9

megagametophyte in flowering plant

reduced to embryo sac (7 cells, 8 nuclei), no archegonium

New cards
10

microgametophyte

male gametophyte haploid (n) plant that produces male gametes (sperm) in antheridia

New cards
11

microgametophyte in seed plants

reduced to pollen grain, 4-8 cells, no antheridium

New cards
12

microgametophyte in flowering plants

reduced to pollen grain with 2 cells, tube and generative, no antheridium

New cards
13

gametes

fuse at fertilization to produce a single-celled diploid zygote that gives rise to multicellular diploid sporophyte

New cards
14

sporophyte

multicellular diploid spore plant that produces spores by meiosis in sporangia

New cards
15

sporangia

multicellular organs of sporophyte that produces spores by meiosis

New cards
16

megasporangia

contain diploid (2n) megasporocyte cells that divide by meiosis to produce halpoid (n) megaspores that give rise to female multicellular haploid (n) megagametophyte

in seed plants, surrounded by integument

New cards
17

ovule

in seed plants, the intefument and enclosed megasporangium

New cards
18

microsporangia

contain diploid (2n) microsporocyte cells that divide by meiosis to produce haploid (n) microspores that give rise to male haploid (n) microgametophyte

New cards
19

spores

single haploid cells that undergo mitotic cell division after germination to give rise to the multicellular haploid gametophyte, coated in sporopollenin

1st cell of haploid stage

New cards
20

sporopollenin

Most robust organic compound (polymer), protects pollen from desiccation and allows it to last for a very long time

New cards
21

protected embryo

where the zygote develops while embedded in gametophyte tissue

New cards
22

What plants have homosporous lifecycle?

All land plants EXCEPT spike moss, leptosporangium ferns, or seed plants (gymo/angiosperms)

New cards
23

diagnostic features of plants

-possession of chloroplasts via primary endosymbiosis of cyanobacteria

-photopigment “chlorophyll a”

New cards
24

Challenges to life on land

  1. desiccation

  2. water transport

  3. structural support against gravity, wind

  4. intense UV radiation

  5. dispersal of gametes & progeny

New cards
25

Benefits of living on land

  1. increased access to sun for photosynth

  2. increased access to gases (oxygen, CO2) for photosynthesis

  3. decreased competition with other plants and herbivores initially

New cards
26

Algal plants…

  1. store products of photosynthesis as starch inside chloroplasts

  2. photopigment “chlorophyll b”

  3. retention of egg on parent plant

  4. encasement of egg on parent plant (enclosed by parent tissue)

New cards
27

When did chlorophyll b evolve?

On the branch to chlorophytes/after red algae

New cards
28

When did starch as storage evolve/what doesn’t use it?

Evolved on the branch to chlorophytes

red algae don’t use it

New cards
29

charales

Sister group to land plants, occur in near-shore habitats.

New cards
30

How do unicellular and multicellular organisms reproduce?

  1. Unicellular: asexually

  2. Multicellular: sexually by haplontic lifecycle (multicell haploid stage)

New cards
31

Meiosis

Cell division with reduction of ploidy in daughter cells

New cards
32

mitosis

cell division that results in no ploidy level change in daughter cells

New cards
33

gametes

sexual haploid cells (sperm/egg)

New cards
34

fertilization

fusion of n gamete nuclei to form single celled 2n zygote

New cards
35

Diplontic lifecycle

multicellular diploid phase (animals, humans)

New cards
36

Haplontic Lifecycle

multicellular haploid phase (fungi and algal gorups)

New cards
37

Sporic lifecycle, Alternation-of-generations

Both multicellular and haploid generations, innovation of land plants

New cards
38

cuticle

waxy coating to prevent desiccation

New cards
39

Bryophytes (non-vascular land plants)

Restricted to cool, damp habitats because

  1. lack true vascular system, true stems, leaves, and roots

  2. poorly developed cuticle

  3. rely on water for reproduction, swimming sperm requires water, limits ability to disperse and timing of reprod.

New cards
40

What are bryophyte bodies reliant on for support?

Lack a true vascular system, rely on capillary action (osmosis causing cell turgor) and nutrient transport relies on diffusion of water through cell membranes.

New cards
41

Bryophytes include

  1. liverworts

  2. mosses

  3. hornworts

New cards
42

rhiniophytes

extinct sister group to vascular plants, had 2 major innovations

  1. branched sporophyte with apical sporangia

  2. vascular tissue that lacked tracheid cells

New cards
43

branched sporophyte

allowed production of more apical sporangia and spores per plant

New cards
44

vascular system allows..

for more efficient water and nutrient transport in the plant

New cards
45

In vascular plants…

the sporophyte is nutritionally independent of the gametophyte at maturity

New cards
46

tracheid

cells with lignified walls that provide structural support and comprise the xylem

New cards
47

xylem

conducts water and minerals from roots to aerial parts of the plant by passive transipration-cohesion-tension system. Tissue comprised of tracheid cells that are dead at functional maturity and have cell walls fortified with lignin.

New cards
48

phloem

conducts phloem sap (products of photosynthesis, carbs) from source to sink regions of the plant via pressure flow model.

Tissue comprised of sieve-tube elements and companion cells (nurture sieve tube elements)

New cards
49

Adaptive value of vascular system to plants

  1. more efficient water and nutrient transport

  2. rigid structure allows plant to grow taller, better competitor for sunlight and spore dispersal

New cards
50

lateral sporangia

  1. sometimes clustered in apical “cones” called strobili

  2. solution to increase number of sporangia on sporophyte

New cards
51

microphyllous leaves

relatively simple leaves with singular vascular strand derived from sterile lateral sporangia

New cards
52

simple roots

dichotomously branch underground stems with rootlets that evolved from microphyll leaves

New cards
53

dichotomous branching

present in rhiniophytes, the division of the apical meristem into two independently functioning axes

New cards
54

overtopping growth

  1. sporophyte has dominant axis and side branches

  2. asymmetric division of apical meristem

ALLOWS:

  1. taller growth and better sunlight competitor

  2. enhances spore dispersal

  3. allowed elaboration of novel organs from side branches (like megaphyllous leaves)

New cards
55

megaphyllous leaves

“true” leaves with more complex vascularization that evolved from side branches, ramified vascular tissue derived from modified side branches

New cards
56

complex roots

with complex branching and root hairs that evolved from the dermis

New cards
57

apical meristem

  1. region of continuously dividing cells that give rise to plant body (in stem and roots)

  2. meristematic (undifferentiated) cells that give rise to many tissues

  3. all root/shoot cells descended from these.

New cards
58

What are the different branching plants can have?

  1. Lycophytes divide asymmetrically, sporophyte branches dichotomously

  2. Euphyllophytes divide asymmetrically with overtopping growth: sporophytes have main axis with side branches

New cards
59

leaves

composed of photosynthetic organs emerging laterally from a stem/branch possessing vascular tissue

New cards
60

Seed plants

comprised of gymnosperms and angiosperms, with 2 extinct groups called progymnosperms and seed ferns

New cards
61

progymnosperms

-trees that exhibited secondary growth (wood) but lacked seeds, NOT progenitor of gymnosperms

-have wood, no seeds

New cards
62

seed ferns

-trees with fern-like leaves that bore seeds, distantly related to ferns

-have wood and seeds

New cards
63

primary growth

the ability to increase the length of the plant by means of apical meristems in roots and shoots.

New cards
64

secondary growth

the ability to increase the girth/width of a plant by means of vascular cambium

New cards
65

vascular cambium

innovation of seed plants, comprised of ring of meritematic cells between 1° xylem and 1° phloem.

New cards
66

bifacial vascular cambium

→2° xylem to the inside of the plant that gives rise to wood,

→2° phloem to the outside of the plant that gives rise to bark

New cards
67

Significance of secondary growth

  1. allows taller growth of sporophyte, better sunlight competitor

  2. taller growth facilitates efficient dispersal of pollen/seeds

  3. constant rejuvenation of xylem and phloem, gets clogged with resins over time

  4. formation of bark prevents water loss and protects against pathogens

evolved independently in lycophytes with unifacial vascular cambium

New cards
68

unifacial vascular cambium

in lycophytes (quillworts). Produces 2° xylem but not 2° phloem. In quillworts, girth increase is limited because the phloem gets squeezed

New cards
69

Where does nutritive haploid tissue come from in gymnosperm seeds?

megagametophyte

New cards
70

where does the diploid seed coat come from in gymnosperm seeds?

the integument

New cards
71

Benefits of seed innovation

  1. Facilitates efficient dispersal of next sporophyte generation

  2. provides protection of developing sporophyte

  3. allows for prolonged dormancy of embryo so that development can resume when conditions are favorable, contains nutrients for when plant germinates and grows

New cards
72

pollen/pollen grain

highly reduced male gametophyte (microgametophyte) of seed plants.

  1. comprised of 4-8 cells, 2 of which are sperm cells/male gametes

  2. lacks multicellular male gametangia (antheridia)

  3. enclosed in sporopollenin

New cards
73

Benefits of pollen

  1. efficient dispersal of sperm over great distances

  2. delivery of sperm to megagametophytes without water!

New cards
74

dioecious

Male and female reproductive organisms on separate individuals

New cards
75

monoecious

having male and female reproductive organisms on the same individual

New cards
76

cycads

  1. Dioecious cone-bearing palm-like plants, pollen make swimming sperm

  2. deliver sperm via pollen grain, sperm swim within megagametophyte to fertilize egg after pollination

New cards
77

ginko

  1. single species of dioecious plants.

  2. Pollen have swimming sperm

  3. ovules borne in pairs surrounded by fleshy integument, fertilized ovule has fleshy swelling of integument tissue that smells bad

New cards
78

gnetophytes

  1. Dioecious and monoecious plants with opposite leaves and non-motile sperm (non-swimming).

  2. Have vessel elements in xylem and exhibit double fertilization, 2 sperm fertilizing one egg

New cards
79

conifers

  1. dioecious and monecious cone-bearing plants with needle-like leaves and non-motile sperm.

  2. pollen cones have scales that are modified leaves

  3. scales of seed cone are modified branches

  4. half of the species have fleshy, fruit-like swelling around fertilized ovule (juniper “berries”)

New cards
80

Angiosperms have long phylogenetic stem

dominant terrestrial plants for the past 90 million years.

speciation event that gave rise to mrca of gymnosperms and mrca of flowering plants occured 370 mya.

Long stem has 2 important consequences

  1. Difficult to locate position of root of flowering plants. Closest relative (gymnosperms) separated by a long time span. Identified root at “ANITA” grade of plants.

  2. provided opportunity for many angiosperm innovations to accumulate, most related to reproduction

New cards
81

flower

reproductive structure of flowering plants

New cards
82

carpel

enclosed megasporangia

New cards
83

fruit

expanded ovary

New cards
84

double fertilization

one sperm gives rise to diploid zygote, other to triploid endosperm

New cards
85

endosperm

triploid tissue that nourishes developing embryo

New cards
86

embryo sac

  1. highly reduced female megagametophyte, usually 7 cells and 8 nuclei.

New cards
87

Angiosperms have new vascular cell types

vessel elements and fiber cells in xylem

New cards
88

Xylem in flowering plants has 2 new cell types

  1. Vessel elements: increase efficiency of h2o and mineral transport

  2. fiber cells are structural elements that aid in supporting plant body

New cards
89

perfect flower

both stamens and carpels

New cards
90

imperfect flower

either stamens or carpels, bot both

New cards
91

inflorescence

group of flowers borne on a branch

New cards
92

umbel

flowers stemming from short stalks (pedicels) that radiate from a common point. Onions

New cards
93

compound umbel

cluster of umbels stemming from stalks (rays) that radiate from common point. Carrots

New cards
94

spike

cluster of flowers along unbranched axis. Grass

New cards
95

head

outer ring of sterile ray florets and central cluster of disc florets. Sunflowers

New cards
96

fruit

develops by elaboration of the ovary after fertilization surrounding the seed.

  1. provides additional embryo protection

  2. facilitates dispersal of seed

New cards
97

drupe

simple fruit that is derived from single flower, contains one ovule

New cards
98

berry

fleshy fruit derived from single flower with ovary that contains multiple ovules

New cards
99

aggregate fruit

derived from single flower with multiple separate ovaries, glomming together fruitlets from each of the separate ovaries in a single flower.

New cards
100

multiple fruits

develops from many separate florets: pineapples

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 39 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 189 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 156 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard51 terms
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard124 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard101 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard55 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard170 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard153 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard150 terms
studied byStudied by 37 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)