KSU ASI 350 Exam 1

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Meat

1 / 139

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

140 Terms

1

Meat

Flesh tissues suitable for use as food; typically means skeletal muscle tissues but includes many others

New cards
2

Muscle evolved to ______________

Serve functions of locomotion and heat production in living animals

New cards
3

Lipids

•Most variable component of meat •Comprised of neutral (triglycerides) and polar (phospholipids) components

New cards
4

Meat Composition: % Water

75%

New cards
5

Meat Composition: % Protein

18.5%

New cards
6

Meat Composition: % Lipid

~3.0%

New cards
7

Meat Composition: % Nitrogenous (non-protein)

1.5%

New cards
8

Meat Composition: % Carbohydrates

1.0%

New cards
9

Meat Composition: % Inorganic

1.0%

New cards
10

Most ______ and ________ occur in water.

chemical reactions and metabolic processes

New cards
11

Protein is composed of _, _, _, _, and ________ proteins

Contractile, regulatory, cytoskeletal, sarcoplasmic, and stromal

New cards
12

Carcass composition:

•45-65% muscle •15-40% fat •10-25% bone

New cards
13

Standard

<3% marbling

New cards
14

Marbling grade: Select

3-4%

New cards
15

Marbling grade: Choice

4-9%

New cards
16

Marbling grade: Prime

>9%

New cards
17

Muscle comprises _____ of an animal's body mass

30-40%

New cards
18

Primary functions of muscle:

Movement Support Maintenance Dietary protein

New cards
19

Skeletal muscle

Comprises the majority of muscle tissue Voluntary contraction Striated Multi-nucleated Non-branched

New cards
20

Cardiac muscle

Only found in heart Involuntary contraction Striated Mononucleated Branched Intercalated discs

New cards
21

Smooth muscle

Found in GI, repro tract.... Involuntary contraction Mononucleated Non-striated Non-branched

New cards
22

Sarcolemma

Cell membrane

New cards
23

Sarcoplasmic reticulum and T-Tubules

Release and store Ca++ during muscle contraction

New cards
24

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell; oxidative metabolism

New cards
25

Myofibrils

Contractile machinery of cells; made of sarcomeres

New cards
26

Epimysium

Sheath surrounding entire muscle

New cards
27

Perimysium

Sheath surrounding muscle bundle

New cards
28

Endomysium

Sheath surrounding individual muscle fiber

New cards
29

Muscle Structure (Out->in)

Epimysium > muscle > perimysium > muscle bundle > endomysium > muscle fiber > sarcolemma > sarcomere > myofibril > Myofilament

New cards
30

Sarcomere

Contractile unit in muscle

New cards
31

A-band; myosin

Thick, dark filament in the sarcomere

New cards
32

I-band; Actin

Light, thin filament in the sarcomere

New cards
33

Z-line

Forms lateral boundaries of contractile units

New cards
34

H-zone

Light band within A-band; no overlap of thick and thin myofilaments

New cards
35

Pseudo H-zone

Dark region bisecting H-zone; size remains the same; no myosin heads

New cards
36

M-Line

Bisects pseudo H-zone; 'holds' thick filaments in position

New cards
37

Thin filament

Comprised of superhelix F-actin (string of pearls, Troponin (T,I,C) and tropomysin

New cards
38

Troponin-T

bound to tropomyosin

New cards
39

Troponin-I

Inhibits interaction between actin and myosin

New cards
40

Troponin-C

Binds Ca++

New cards
41

Thick filament

Comprised primarily of myosin, which is bound together by C-proteins

New cards
42

C-protein

Encircles thick filament and 'clamps' myosin molecules together

New cards
43

Titin

Location: extends from Z-line to M-line Function: Attaches thick filament to Z-line; maintains resting tension of muscle and keeps sarcomere aligned (copper wire)

New cards
44

Nebulin

Location: originates at Z-line, extends along entire length of the thin filament Function: believed to be a template for building and maintaining F-actin; may be help connect thin filament to Z-line (twizzler string)

New cards
45

Desmin

Location: Encircles myofibril at the Z-line Function: attaches adjacent myofibrils }

New cards
46

Skelemin

Attaches adjacent myofibrils at the M-Line (little bean)

New cards
47

Epithelial tissue

Forms lining that covers organs Functions: protection, secretion, excretion, transport, absorption, and sense perception

New cards
48

Nervous tissue

•Less than 1% of meat Two parts:

  1. Central nervous system (can't eat)

  2. Peripheral nervous system (found throughout muscle)

New cards
49

Adipose tissue

•Energy storage •Large impact on palatability and muscle composition •Two types: brown and white

New cards
50

Brown Fat

Formed prenatally; highly oxidative and can be metabolized more quickly than white fat

New cards
51

Hyaline cartilage

Joint surfaces, costal cartilage, dorsal tips of vertebrae

New cards
52

Elastic cartilage

Epiglottis and developing bone

New cards
53

Fibrocartilage

Attachments of tendons and bones

New cards
54

___________ can be removed from meat; _________ and __________ are always consumed.

Epimysium; perimysium and endomysium

New cards
55

Collagen forms ____% of protein and connective tissue

20-25%

New cards
56

Tropocollagen

•Structural unit of a collagen fibril •Has a repeating amino acid tripeptide consisting of glycine, proline and and hydroxyproline

New cards
57

__ of 12 types of collagen are found in skeletal muscle

5

New cards
58

Collagen cross-links are _________

Heat degradable

New cards
59

Elastin (Lig. Nuchae)

•Contains AA desomine and isedesomine, which form cross-links •Provides stability for head and neck •More stable than collagen, heat resistant and can't be broken down ('yellow bit') (bungee cord)

New cards
60

Red muscle fiber

•Type I and IIA •"slow twitch" •Highly oxidative •Prolonged contraction (marathon runners)

New cards
61

White muscle fiber

•Type IIX and IIB •"fast twitch" •Low aerobic threshold •Bursts of strength (sprinters)

New cards
62

________________ are needed for oxidative metabolism.

Mitochondria

New cards
63

Swine, cattle muscle fiber types

More red at birth, more white later on

New cards
64

Contraction

Conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy for locomotion

New cards
65

Most muscle contractions are initiated by stimuli that arrive at the _________________.

Sarcolemma

New cards
66

Skeletal muscle stimulus

Starts in brain and is transmitted via nerves (CNS ---> PNS)

New cards
67

Motor nerves

Transmit stimuli to skeletal muscles

New cards
68

Transmembrane potentials

•Selective permeability (water is exception) •Ion movement across causes electrical gradient •Protein channels act as transporters

New cards
69

Resting membrane potential

•Created by disproportion of ions between inside and outside of cell •Net negative charge inside, net positive charge outside

New cards
70

Resting potential is maintained through ___________

•Active transport of ions •Selective permeability to ions/small molecules •Unique ionic composition of intra/extracellular fluids

New cards
71

Na+/K+ pump

•One of the largest ATP utilizers in the body •1 ATP= 2 K+ out, 3 Na+ in

New cards
72

Action potential

•Transmission of an electrical impulse "down" a fiber's cell membrane •Causes a wave of depolarization

New cards
73

Action Potential process

  1. Na+ channels open after action potential depolarizes membrane

  2. Na+ enters cell until it closes again by electrical gradient

  3. K+ channels open and K+ cells rush out, resetting electrical gradient

  4. K+ channels close, Na+/K+ pump returns to resting potential

New cards
74

The action potential is transferred from nerve fiber to muscle at the _______ _______.

Myoneural junction

New cards
75

Acetylcholine

Neurotransmitter that binds to sarcolemma receptors, causes depolarization of cell membrane (activates action potential)

New cards
76

Action potential is transmitted to the _____________ via ___________

Sarcoplasmic reticulum; T-tubules

New cards
77

T-Tubules

•Continuous with surface membrane •Brings extracellular solution into cell interior • Contains DHP

New cards
78

DHP

•Dihydropyrodine receptor •Voltage-sensitive Ca+ channels responsible for opening RYR receptors

New cards
79

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

•Sleeve-like structure around each myofibril •Stores intercellular Ca+ •Contains RYR

New cards
80

RYR

•Ryanodine receptor • Channel responsible for Ca+ release for muscle contraction

New cards
81

Contraction process - channels/receptors

  1. AP arrives at triad

  2. DHP receptors on T-tubules release Ca+ into cytoplasm

  3. Ca+ activates RYR receptors on the sarcoplasmic reticulum

  4. Stored Ca+ is released from the terminal cisternae of the SR

  5. Ca+ binds with troponin-C

  6. Troponin-I is moved away from actin

  7. Troponin-T pushes tropomyosin away from myosin-binding site on actin

  8. Myosin head binds with actin at the binding site, forming actomyosin

New cards
82

Myosin ATPase

Responsible for hydrolizing ATP to ADP to provide energy for contraction

New cards
83

Sliding Filament Theory

Swiveling action during contraction causes myosin heads to move along the thin filament, causing the sarcomere to shorten

New cards
84

Contraction review 1

New cards
85

Contraction review 2

New cards
86

Relaxation process

  1. Cholinesterase process is released by nerve at the myoneural junction and breaks down acetylcholine

  2. Sarcolemma is repolarized

  3. Ca+ is reduced in the sarcoplasm and returned to the SR via the SERCA pump

  4. Ca+ is released from Troponin-C

  5. Troponin complex is returned to original state

  6. Tropomyosin returns to blocking the actin-binding site

  7. Cross-bridge is terminated, myosin slides back into resting state) (Passive, no ATP needed)

New cards
87

Mg++

Complexed with ATP to inhibit actin-myosin interaction

New cards
88

Contraction review 3

New cards
89

Relaxation review

New cards
90

Hypertrophy

Enlargement of existing cells (prenatal, postnatal)

New cards
91

Hyperplasia

Multiplication of new cells; mitosis (prenatal)

New cards
92

Fiber type differentiation

•All muscles are Type I (red) at birth • Eventually differentiate into white and intermediate types

New cards
93

Fibroblast

Precursor cell to connective tissue

New cards
94

Adipoblast

Precursor to adipocyte; starts to accumulate fat

New cards
95

Internal fat

Perirenal; pericardial; mesenteric

New cards
96

Intermuscular fat

Undesirable for cutability

New cards
97

Intramuscular fat

Marbling; accumulates after intermuscular fat

New cards
98

Intracellular fat

Unsaturated (not full of H+ ions)

New cards
99

Adipose tissue deposits

New cards
100

As fat % increases, _______ and ________ %s decrease

Moisture and protein

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2858 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(10)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard23 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard23 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard82 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 26 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard56 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)