muscles part 2

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skeletal muscle tissue, blood vessels, nerve fibers, connective tissue

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131 Terms

1

skeletal muscle tissue, blood vessels, nerve fibers, connective tissue

gross anatomy of the skeletal muscle:

  • each skeletal muscle is an organ, made up of several kind of tissues: .. … …, … …., … … , and … …

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2

one nerve, one artery, one or more veins

gross anatomy of the skeletal muscle:

  • nerve and blood supply: in general, … … , ….. …., and … .. … .. serve each muscle

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3

nerve stimulation, nerve ending, voluntary

gross anatomy of the skeletal muscle:

  • unlike cells of cardiac and smooth muscle tissues, which can contract without … …, every skeletal muscle fiber is supply with a .. .. that controls its activity (…. control)

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4

rich, energy, oxygen, nutrients, metabolic waste

gross anatomy of the skeletal muscle:

  • skeletal muscle has a … blood supply → contracting muscle fibers require a huge amount of …. and ….. and …., as well as need to rid of large amounts of … ….

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5

connective tissue sheaths, whole, bursting, strong

gross anatomy of the skeletal muscle:

  • skeletal muscle tissues are wrapped by … … …, which support each cell and reinforce and hold together the muscle as a …., preventing the bulging muscles from …. during exceptionally …. contractions

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6

epimysium, perimysium and fascicles, endomysium

what are the 3 connective tissue sheaths of skeletal muscle tissues?

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7

epimysium

…. is an “overcoat” of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the whole muscle

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8

dense irregular, whole

the epimysium is an overcoat of … … connective tissue that surrounds the …. muscle

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9

fascicles, perimysium

  • within each skeletal muscle, the muscle fibers are grouped into …….

  • surrounding each fascicle is a layer of fibrous connective tissue called …., which contains blood vessels and fibers

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10

endomysium, fine areolar

… is a sheath of connective tissue that surrounds each individual muscle fiber

  • it consists of … … connective tissue

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11

individual, fine areolar

the endomysium is a sheath of connective tissue that surrounds each …. muscle fibers

  • it consists of …. …. connective tissue

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12

from other muscles, other organs

what does the epimysium separate the whole skeletal muscle from?

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13

from another fascicles

what does the perimysium separate the fascicle from?

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14

from another skeletal muscle fiber

what does the endomysium separate the skeletal muscle fiber?

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15

origin

the stationary immoveable or less moveable attachment of a muscle to a bone

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16

insertion

the moveable attachment of a muscle to a bone

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17

insertion, origin

when a muscle contracts, the …. moves toward the ….

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18

continuous, join, muscle, bones

gross anatomy of the skeletal muscle:

  • all of the connective tissue sheaths are … with one another, as well as with the tendons that …. …. to …..

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19

contract, sheaths, moved

gross anatomy of the skeletal muscle:

  • when muscle fibers ….., they pull on these …., which transmit the pulling force to the bone to be …..

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20

elasticity

gross anatomy of the skeletal muscle:

  • the sheaths contribute to the natural … of the muscle tissue

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21

entry, exit, blood vessels, nerve fibers

gross anatomy of the skeletal muscle:

  • the sheaths provide …. and …. routes for the … … and … … that serve the muscle

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22

long, cylindrical, multiple, sarcolemma

microscopic anatomy of a skeletal muscle fiber:

  • each skeletal muscle fiber:

    • is a …., … cell with … nuclei just beneath its … (or plasma membrane)

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23

10 to 100 um, 30 cm

the skeletal muscle fiber is a huge cell with a diameter of …. to …. and a length up to …. long

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24

sarcoplasm, myofibrils, sarcoplasmic reticulum, transverse tubules

what are the 4 unique parts for the skeletal muscle fiber?

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25

glycosides, myogloblin

what does the sarcoplasm contain?

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glycosomes

granules of stored glycogen that provide glucose during muscle contraction (in the sarcoplasm)

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glycogen, glucose, contraction

the glycosomes in the sarcoplasm are granules of stored …. that provide …. during muscle …..

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28

myoglobin

… is a red pigment that stores oxygen

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red, oxygen

the myoglobin is a …. pigment that stores ….

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30

myofibrils

  • a single muscle fiber that contains hundreds to thousands of …… (1-2 um) that run parallel to its length

    • they account for about 80% of cellular volume

    • they also contain the contractile elements of the skeletal muscle fiber: the sarcomere, which contains even smaller structures called myofilaments

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31

1,2, parallel, 80, sarcomere, myofilaments

a single muscle fiber contains hundred to thousands of myofibrils (….-….. um) that run …. to its length

  • they account for about ….% of cellular volume

  • myofibrils contain the contractile elements of the skeletal muscle fiber, the ….., which contains even smaller structures called ……

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32

sarcolemma, sarcoplasm, terminal cisternae, sarcoplasmic reticulum

transverse tubules (T tubules):

  • …. invaginates into the …. forming T tubules

  • in either side of the T tubules are …. …, which are the enlargement of the … …..

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33

dark A band, H zone, vertically, M line

the myofibrils contain a … … …, each has a lighter region called … …, each H zone is bisected …. by a dark line called the …. …

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light I band, Z disc

the myofibrils also has a … … …, each has a midline called … …

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sarcomere

the region of a myofibril between 2 successive Z disc is a …. (2 um long)

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36

2 um

how long is a sarcomere?

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37

thin

are thick or thin filaments present in the light band?

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38

thick

are thick or thin filaments present in the H zone?

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thick and thin filaments overlap

are thick or thin filaments present in the A band?

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perpendicular, thick, M

in the H zone, proteins run …. to … filaments to form the … line

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41

sarcomere

what is the functional unit of the skeletal muscle fiber?

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42

thick, thin

what are the 2 types of myofilaments?

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43

16 um

how long are the thick filaments in diameter?

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44

myosin, 2, 4, polypeptide chains

the thick filaments are composed of the protein ……, which consists of … heavy and … light …. ….

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tail, 2 globular heads

the myosin has a … attached by a flexible hinge to … … …

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2 intertwined, heavy

the tail of the myosin consists of … … helical polypeptide ….. chains

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2 light

the globular heads are associated with … … chains

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48

actin-binding, ATP-binding, ATPase, splits, ATP, contraction

the globular head of the myosin contains:

  • the …-….. sites

  • the …. ….. sites

  • ….. activity that … … to generate energy for muscle ….

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49

7-8 um

how thick are the thin filaments?

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50

filamentous actin, tropomyosin, troponin

what are the 3 thing that the thin filaments are composed of?

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51

g-actin

the filamentous actin (F actin) is a polymer made by subunits of …..

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52

polypeptide, actin, relaxed, blocks

the tropomyosin is a … that spiral around the …. filament and help stabilize it

  • when the muscle is …., tropomyosin ….. the myosin-binding site of the actin → myosin head on the thick filament cannot bind to the thin filament

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53

globular 3

troponin is a … … polypeptide complex

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54

TnI, TnT, TnC

what are the 3 polypeptides of troponin?

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55

inhibitory, actin

TnI is an … subunit that binds to …..

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56

tropomyosin, position

TnT binds to …. and helps …. it on actin

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57

calcium ions

TnC binds …. …..

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58

TnI

… is an inhibitory subunit that binds to actin

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59

TnT

….. binds to tropomyosin and helps position it on actin

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60

TnC

… binds calcium ions

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61

troponin, tropomyosin

both … and … help control the myosin-actin interactions involved in contraction

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62

center, sarcomere, sides, myofilament band

myosin tails are arranged to point toward the … of the …, and the heads point to the …. of the … ….

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63

tubules, longitudinal, myofibrils, H zone

the sarcoplasmic reticulum contains …. which run … along the …., communicating with each other at the … ….

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64

sarcoplasmic reticulum

the … .. contains tubules which run longitudinally along the myofibrils, communicating with each other at the H zone

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65

intracellular, calcium, contract

the sarcoplasmic reticulum regulates …. levels of …. and stores calcium and releases it on demand when the muscle fiber is stimulated to ……

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66

sarcoplasmic reticulum

the … … regulates intracellular levels of calcium and stores calcium and releases it on demand when the muscle fiber is stimulated to contact

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67

sarcolemma, A band, I band, terminal cisternae, sarcoplasmic reticulum

the t-tubules are made by protruding deep in the …. into the sarcoplasm at each … … - … … junction and on either sides of the t-tubules are … … which are enlargement of the … ….

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68

t-tubules

the .-.. are made by protruding deep in the sarcolemma into the sarcoplasm at each A band-I band junction and on either side of this are terminal cisternae, which are enlargement of the sarcoplasmic reticulum

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69

terminal cisternae, t-tubule, terminal cisternae

what made up a triad?

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70

nerve-initiated electrical impulses, sarcolemma, sarcolemma, triads, calcium, sarcoplasmic reticulum

muscle contraction is controlled by …. - ….. …. … that travel along the ….

  • because the t-tubules are a continuation of the …, t-tubules conduct electrical impulses to …, which signal for the release of …. form the …. …..

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71

the skeletal muscle fiber must be activated upon nerve ending stimulation and after that a change in membrane potential occurs

physiology of the skeletal muscle fiber:

  • what is the 1st step for a skeletal muscle fiber to contract?

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72

the electrical impulse must generate a electrical current (called action potential) in its sarcolemma

physiology of the skeletal muscle fiber:

  • what is the 2nd step for a skeletal muscle fiber to contract?

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73

the action potential must be propagated along the sarcolemma

physiology of the skeletal muscle fiber:

  • what is the 3rd step for a skeletal muscle fiber to contract?

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74

calcium must be released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, rise briefly in the sarcoplasm, providing the final stimulus for contraction (cross bridges of myosin)

physiology of the skeletal muscle fiber:

  • what is the 4th step for a skeletal muscle fiber to contract?

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75

nerve

the somatic motor neurons are ….. cells that activate skeletal muscle fibers

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76

somatic motor neurons

the … … .. are nerve cells that activate skeletal muscle fibers

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77

brain, spinal cord, axons, innervate

the somatic motor neurons are located in the … or … .., but their …. travel to the muscle cells they …..

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78

somatic motor neurons

the … …. … are located in the brain or spinal cord, but their axons travel to the muscle cells they innervate

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79

neuromuscular junction, end plate

each axon of the somatic motor neurons ending off several branches that collectively form a …. …. or … … with a single muscle fiber

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80

presynaptic axon terminal, synaptic cleft, postsynaptic functional folds of the sarcolemma

the neuromuscular junction includes:

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81

synaptic vesicles, neurotransmitter acetylcholine

within the axon terminal are … …, which contains the … .. (ACh)

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82

motor unit

a … .. consists of one motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates

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83

one motor neuron, muscle fibers, innervates

a motor unit consists of … … .. and all the … … it ….

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84

nerve impulse, axon, axon terminal, Ach, synaptic cleft

step 1 of the neuromuscular junction:

  • when a … …. reaches the end of the …, the … … releases … into the …. ….

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85

Ach, synaptic cleft, Ach receptors, sarcolemma, muscle fiber

step 2 of the neuromuscular junction:

  • …. diffuses across the … … and attaches to the … … located in the …. of the … …

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86

Ach, receptor, electrical, action potential

step 3 of the neuromuscular junction:

  • … binding to … triggers …. events that generate an …. ….

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87

acetyl cholinesterase

Ach effects finishes by … …, an enzyme located in the synaptic cleft

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88

chemically gated channels, Na+, K+, in, out

generation of an action potential in a skeletal muscle fiber:

1) binding of Ach to its receptor at the neuromuscular junctions opens …. … …, that allow … and … to pass → Na+ is coming ….. and K+ is going ….

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89

transient, membrane potential, interior, sarcolemma, negative, depolarization, end plate potential

generation of an action potential in a skeletal muscle fiber:

2) a … change in the … … occurs at the … of the .. becomes less … → …..

  • initially, depolarization is a local event called an …. …. ….

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90

end plate potential, -60 mv, action potential, voltage gated Na+ channels

generation of an action potential in a skeletal muscle fiber:

3) if the … .. .. reaches the threshold (… ….), an … .. is generated —> … … .. .. open by depolarization

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91

Na+, electrochemical gradient

generation of an action potential in a skeletal muscle fiber:

  • … enters following its … ….

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92

action potential, sarcolemma, all, adjacent, voltage gated Na+ channels

propagation of the action potential:

1) the … … propagates along the length of the … in …. directions by spreading to …. membrane areas and opening … … .. …

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93

repolarization

… is the restoring of the sarcolemma to its initial resting potential

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94

restoring, sarcolemma, initial

repolarization is the … of the … to its …. resting potential

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95

changes, membrane permeability

depolarization is a consequence of …. in …. ….

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96

Na+, close, K+, open, out, negative

repolarization

  • … channels … and … channels … —> since K+ is higher inside the cell than outside, K+ diffuses …. of the muscle fiber, restoring the …. charge inside

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97

refractory, stimulated, repolarization

repolarization:

  • during the depolarization, the muscle fiber is in a ….. period because the cell cannot be … again until … is complete

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98

electrical, resting

repolarization restores the … conditions of the ….. state

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99

repolarization

…. restores the electrical conditions of the resting state

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100

Na+/K+ ATPase, ionic, resting

repolarization:

  • the …. pump restores the … condition of the … state

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