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108 Terms

1

what does swot stand for

strengths weaknesses opportunities threats

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2

operant behavior

voluntary behavior

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3

reflex behavior

involuntary behavior

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4

motivation

psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior

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5

can motivation be seen?

no it must be inferred

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6

reinforcement process

a process for changing human behavior through positive factors (carrots) or negative factors (sticks)

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7

extrinsic reward

given by others

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8

intrinsic reward

satisfaction from yourself

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9

Thorindike law of effect

behavior that results in a pleasant outcome is likely to be repeated, while behavior that results in negative outcome is not likely to be repeated

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10

positive reinforcement

administering rewards after desired behavior

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11

negative reinforcement

removing something negative after desired behavior

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12

punishment

administering unpleasant outcomes when unwanted behavior is performed

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13

extinction

weakening undesired behaviors by refusing to acknowledge them

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14

How are people motivated

to satisfy their needs

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15

maslow theory of needs

people are motivated to satisfy their need for (1) physiological, (2) safety, (3) love, (4) esteem, and (5) self-actualization.17

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16

physiological need

Need for food, clothing, shelter, comfort, self- preservation.

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17

self actualization need

need: Need for self-fulfillment: increasing competence, using abilities to the fullest.

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18

mcclellands acquired needs theory

three needs—achievement, affiliation, and power—are major motives determining people’s behavior in the workplace.30

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19

achievement need

the desire to excel,

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20

affiliation need

the desire for friendly relationships with others

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21

power need

the desire to influence others

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22

self determination theory

people are driven by competence, autonomy, and relatedness

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23

competence need

people want to feel skilled and knowledgeable

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24

autonomy need

people want to feel like they have control over what they want to do and how they want to do it

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25

relatedness need

people want to feel a sense of belonging with others

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26

two factor theory

work satisfaction and dissatisfaction arise from two different factors. work satisfaction comes from motivating factors and work dissatisfaction comes from hygiene factors.

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27

motivating factors

what will make employees satisfied

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28

examples of motivating factors

achievement, recognition, the nature of work, rewards

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29

examples of hygiene factors

pay, working conditions, company policies

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30

equity theory

that employees are motivated to see fairness in the rewards they expect for task performance and are motivated to resolve feelings of injustice.47

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31

expectancy theory

deciding how much effort to exert in a specific task situation

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32

expectancy

the belief that a particular level of effort will lead to a particular level of performance.

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33

instrumentality

he expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to the outcome desired

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34

valence

the importance a worker assigns to a reward

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35

goal setting theory

theory suggests that employees can be motivated by goals that are specific and challenging but achievable.

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36

stretch goals

goals beyond what they are actually expected to achieve

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37

learning goal orientation

learning new skills successfully

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38

performance goal orientation

successfully demonstrating competency with the skills you have

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39

job design

the division of an organization’s work among its employees and (2) the application of motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance.

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40

scientific management

stripping a job down to its simplest tasks to encourage productivity

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41

job enlargement

adding more variety of tasks to a job to increase motivation

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42

leadership

ability to influence employees to voluntarily pursue organizational goals.12

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43

leadership vs managing

Managers conduct planning, organizing, directing, and control. Leaders inspire, encourage, and rally others to achieve great goals.

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44

managerial leadership

“the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives.”21

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45

power

is the ability to marshal human, informational, and other resources to get something done.

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46

personalized power

to help themself

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47

socialized power

to help others

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48

legitimate power

positional power over others

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49

reward power

results from a manager rewarding their employees

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50

coercive power

results from a manager being able to punish their employees

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51

expert power

comes from ones expertise or specializd information

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52

referent power

power that comes from ones charisma and ability to get along with others

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53

ingratiation

gettign someone in a good mood before making a request

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54

legitimating

basing a request on authority, right, or policy with implied approval from supervisors

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55

trait approaches to leadership

which attempt to identify distinctive characteristics that account for the effectiveness of leaders

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56

narcicism in workplace

self centered people with feelings of superiority. can provoke counterproductive behavior in others

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57

machievelli ism ? in workplace

cynical, manipulative people. can cause conunter productive behaviro in people

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58

psychopathy

no care for others. can create toxic environment

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59

positive leadership traits

extraversion, agreeableness, emotional intelligence

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60

behavioral leadership approaches

try to determine key behaviors done by effective leaders

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61

task oriented behaviors

plannign, clarifying, monitoring, problem solving

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62

initiating structure

initiating the structure for what employees should be doing

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63

transactional leadership

clarifying the role for employees and providing rewards and punishment based on performance

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64

relationship oriented leadership

leader's interactions with their subordinates is most important. consideration, empowerment, ethics, serving others

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65

passive leadership

lack of leadership skills; ex management by exception- managers who only act when something is wrong ; laissez fair - managers who dont take responsibility

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66

contingency/ situational approach

effective leadership depends on the situation at hand

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67

contingency leadership model

determines if manager is task oriented or relationship oriented and if that is appropriate for the situation

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68

transformational leadership

transforms employees to pursue organizational goals over self-interests.

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69

leader member exchange (lmx)

emphasizes that a manager's relationship with each employee is different

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70

in group exchange

mutual trust, respect, and affection between manager and employee

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71

out group exchange

lack of mutual trust and respect, may be less personal and employee may receive less time with manager

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72

organization

system of coordinated actions by two or more ppl

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73

mutual benefit orgs

focused on the advancement of the members; interests

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74

organization chart

shows the formal lines of authority and the organization’s official positions or work specializations.

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75

flat organization

few or no middle managers between top management and those who report to them

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76

unity of command

each person only reporting to one manager

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77

span of control

number of subordinates reporting to a manager

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78

what makes job

the collection of tasks

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79

simple org structure (traditional)

has authority centralized in a single person, a flat hierarchy, few rules, and low work specialization.

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80

formal org structure (traditional)

people with similar occupational specialties are put together in formal groups.

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81

divisional structure (traditional)

structure, people with diverse occupational specialties are put together in formal groups by similar products or services, customers or clients, or geographic regions.

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82

traditional org design

Traditional organizational designs tend to favor structures that rely on a vertical management hierarchy, with clear departmental boundaries and reporting arrangements, as follows.

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83

traditional org design types

simple, formal, divisional

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84

horizontal org design

are used to improve collaboration and work on shared tasks by breaking down internal boundaries. For instance, when managers from different functional divisions are brought together in

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85

hollow structure

the organization has a central core of key functions and outsources other functions to vendors who can do them cheaper or faster.

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86

mechanistic org

well defined structure, central authority

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87

organic org

fewer rules and procedure, decentralized authority

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88

job simplification

assigning a small number of tasks

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89

job rotation

periodically shifting workers through a set of jobs in sequence

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90

job enlargement

assigning more tasks to a job holder

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91

job enrichment

to embed job with motivational factors

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92

control

monitoring performance, comparing it with goals, and taking corrective action as needed.

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93

strategic control

monitoring performance to ensure that strategic plans are being implemented and taking corrective action as needed.

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94

tactical control

is monitoring performance to ensure that tactical plans—those at the divisional or departmental level—are being implemented and taking corrective action as needed.

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95

operational control

control is monitoring performance to ensure that operational plans—day-to-day goals—are being implemented and taking corrective action as needed.

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96

why is control needed

to adapt to change, detect oppurtunities, discover irregularities, provide feedback, reduce costs/increase rpoductivity, and facilitate teamwork

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97

control process steps (SMCA)

establish Standards, Measure performance, Compare, Take corrective action

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98

preliminary control (feedforward in book)

focuses on preventing future problems

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99

concurrent control

real time corrective action that is taken immediately when performance is not meeting expectations

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100

feedback control

happens after a task or project is done

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