Biology Semester 1

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Molecule

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131 Terms

1

Molecule

A group of atoms bonded together

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cell

smallest unit of life

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3

Community

all of the populations of organisms within a given area

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Ecosystem

the interaction of a community and the physical enviorment

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organ system

group of organs that work together to perform a specific function

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Population

A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area

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Biosphere

all the regions of earth that hold organisms

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Organ

interaction of 2 or more tissues to perform a common task

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Tissue

organized groups of cells that interact for a specific task

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Atom

the fundamental unit of matter

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Multicellular organism

individual composed of different types of cells

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Hypothesis

testable explanation of a situation

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13

control group

does not have the "thing" that you are testing

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Testable Question

A question that can be answered by conducting an experiment

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prediction

if-then statement

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experimental group

has the "thing" that you are testing

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independent variable

I set up before the experiment starts

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dependent variable

being measured during the experiment

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Control Variables (constants)

are kept the same between the experimental and control group

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20

Carbohydrates

starches and sugars that provide short term energy and cell structure

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21

Lipids

fatty acids and glycerol, tryglyceride, phospolipids, steroids provide long term energy

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22

Proteins

amino acids that are linked by peptide bonds provide structure, energy storage, contrcative(muscle movement), transport

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23

nucleaic acid

nucleotides(sugar, phospate group, nitrogen base) DNA and RNA

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24

Condensation

covalent bonding of two molecules to form a larger molecule. water forms as a product

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25

hydrolosysis

reverse of condensation, cleavage teactions split larger molecules into smaller ones. water is split

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26

prokaryotic cell

A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles;Bacteria

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Eukaryotic cells

Larger, complex, with nucleus, membrane bound organelles, DNA tightly wrapped around histone proteins in chromosomes, cellulose in plant cell walls. Plant and Animal Cells

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Nucleus

A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

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Nucleolus

Found inside the nucleus and produces ribosomes

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smoothe ER

Makes lipids

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nuclear envelope

Double membrane perforated with pores that control the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus.

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Rough ER

That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes. folds and modification of proteins

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33

Lysosomes

cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell

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golgi

A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell

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Ribosomes

Makes proteins

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36

Mitochondria

makes ATP

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cell membrane

A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.

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cell wall

gives support to plant cells

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Cytoskeleton

A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement

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Vesicles

small membrane sacs that specialize in moving products into, out of, and within a cell

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Centrioles

Cell organelle that aids in cell division in animal cells only

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centeral vacuole

Particularly large vacuole that stores water, only in plant cells

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43

Chloroplast

An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs

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Oraganelle

A membrane-bound structure inside a cell that performs a specialized function

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Cytoplasm

A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

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Vacuole

A sac inside a cell that acts as a storage area

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endomembrane system

A network of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.

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active transporters

proteins that move molecules through membrane by using energy

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transport proteins

allow materials to pass through membrane

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intergral proteins

general name for proteins that are physically embedded

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recognition proteins

provide a "fingerprint" for the cell, so it can be recognized by other cells

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perphial proteins

general name of proteins found on the surface of the membrane

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Recepetor Proteins

bind substances on the exterior that trigger changes inside cell

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passive transporters

allows materials to pass through membrane without using energy

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adhesion proteins

helps cells stick together

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56

Diffusion

diffusion across a membrane

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active transport

Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient

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Osomosis

water moves from an area of high water concentration to an area of a low water concentration

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passive transport

the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell

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facilitated diffusion

Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels

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61

Endocytosis

A process in which a cell engulfs extracellular material through an inward folding of its plasma membrane.

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Exocytosis

Process by which a cell releases large amounts of material

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63

cell cycle

series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide

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Gap 1 (G1)

cells grow, carry out normal functions, and replicate their organelles

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Synthesis Phase

DNA is replicated

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Gap 2 (G2)

Additional growth happens and the cell prepares for mitosis

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Interphase

Cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases

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Prophase

Chromosomes become visable, nuclear envelop dissolves, spindle forms

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Metaphase

Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

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Anaphase

Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell

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Telophase

phase of mitosis in which the distinct individual chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin

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Cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm

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Mitosis

part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides

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daughter cells

the two new cells that result from mitosis and cytokinesis

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Chromosomes

a long strand of DNA organized around proteins

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76

sister chromatids

Identical to each other, duplicated amd condensed, has centramere to hold them together

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unduplicated chromosome

A un-copied portion of DNA that is made of many genes in a condensed form.

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Chromatin

Substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones

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Nucleosome

repeating subunit of chromatin fibers, consisting of DNA coiled around histones

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Gene

A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait

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81

Karyotype

A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs

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82

why do we need more cells?

growth,repair,replace,asexual reproduction

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83

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

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84

DNA nucleotide

Deoxyribose Sugar, Bases GCAT, and Phosphate Group

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RNA nucleotides

Ribose sugar, phosphate group, bases AUCG

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86

Purines

Bases with a double-ring structure. Adenine and Guanine

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Pyrimidines

Bases with a single-ring structure (cytosine, thymine, uracil)

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complementary base pairing

Hydrogen bonding between particular pyrimidines and purines. Adenine & Thymine. Cytosine & Guanine.

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89

5' end and 3' end

5' end - has a 5' carbon attached to a phosphate 3' end - has a 3' carbon attached to a hydroxyl group

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Chargraff's Rule

amount of adenines = amount of thymines; amount of guanines = amount of cytosines

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91

Rosalind Franklin

Used X-ray diffraction to discover the double-helical structure of DNA.

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92

James Watson and Francis Crick

  1. Built first accepted DNA model explaining specific structure and properties of DNA.

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93

DNA replication

the process of making a copy of DNA

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94

DNA helicase

unzips the DNA strand

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95

Topoisomerase

prevents overwinding and tangling

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96

single strand binding proteins

hold strands apart, making sure that they don't connect again

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97

RNA primase

An enzyme that creates a short RNA primer for initiation of DNA replication.

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98

DNA polymerase III

adds DNA nucleotides to the open 3' side of RNA nucleotides and then keeps adding DNA nucleotides to the open 3' end side on the newly made DNA

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99

leading strand

DNA nucleotides are being added in the same direction towards the helicase

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100

lagging strand

DNA nucleotides are being added in the opposite direction as the helicase

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