Chapter 9: general patient care

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1

At the end of each day, the MA should

disinfect the work area and stick the exam rooms

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2

Upon arriving to work the next day, the MA should

recheck the rooms for cleanliness and adequacy of supplies

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3

Identifiers on daily schedule

patient’s name and the reason for the visit

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4

Sodium hypochlorite solution

1:10 dilution of household bleach to water; common solution to disinfect surfaces

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5

In relation to medical facility safety, the MA is responsible for reporting

sidewalk cracks, loose handrails, snow, or ice to their immediate supervisor

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6

Restatement

repeating or paraphrasing information relayed by the sender to confirm the accuracy

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7

Reflection

when the receiver focuses on the main idea of the message but incorporates feelings the sender might be exhibiting or possibly feeling

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8

Clarification

summarizing the information relayed by the sender to clear up any confusion

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9

Chief complaint

subjective information from the PT on the reason for the visit

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10

Medical reconciliation

comparing the patient’s list of medication to the medical record’s list of medication

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11

Anaphylaxis

life-threatening allergic reaction that leads to circulatory collapse, shock, and death if left untreated

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12

Anthropometric measurements

screening tests that include height and weight and head circumference for infants)

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13

Denver developmental screening test

a series of activities used to determine the developmental stage of children

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14

Vital signs are key indicators of

homeostasis

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15

Metabolism

relationship between heat produced and heat loss

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16

Oral temperature uses

digital thermometer

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17

Aurally temperature uses

tympanic thermometer

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18

Temporally temperature uses

temporal artery scanner

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19

Normal oral, tympanic, and temporal temperatures are

98.6°F (37°C)

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20

Axillary temperatures are 1°F ___ than 98.6°F

cooler (less)

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21

Rectal temperatures are 1°F ___ than 98.6°F

higher

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22

What fingers should you use to palpate the pulse

second and third fingers (index nd middle fingers)

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23

What side of the wrist is the radial pulse located on

the thumb side

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24

Where is the brachial pulse located

inside the upper arm

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25

Where is the carotid pulse located

the neck, below the jaw bone

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26

Who do you use the brachial pulse on

children

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27

When do you check the carotid artery

in emergency procedures

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28

Thready

pulse is faint/difficult to detect

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29

Bounding

pulse is very strong

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30

Average heart rate of adult (15+)

60 to 100/min

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31

Average heart rate of newborn

120 to 160/min

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32

Minimum heart rate for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers is

80/min

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33

Maximum heart rate for infants

140/min

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34

Normal respiratory rate of newborn

30 to 50/min

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35

Normal respiratory rate of adult

12 to 20/min

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36

Rales

choking or crackling sounds heard on inspiration that can sound moist or dry

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37

Rhonchi

common rattling snoring sounds often associated with chronic lung disease

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38

Systolic pressure

first sharp tapping sound; when blood begins to surge into the artery

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39

Diastolic pressure

the last sound heard; when blood is flowing freely

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40

The readings of systolic and diastolic pressure are phases

I and V of the Korotoff sounds

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41

Korotoff sounds

the five phases of articular relaxation that are audible while obtaining a manual blood pressure

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42

Blood pressure tends to

rise with age

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43

Average blood pressure of infants and children

between 60/30 to 100/80

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44

Normal blood pressure for adults

lower than 120/80 mm Hg

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45

For adults, what systolic readings are considered elevated?

systolic readings between 120 and 120

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46

Stage 1 hypertension

130 to 130/80 to 89

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47

Stage 2 hypertension

readings greater than 140/90

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48

Patients experiencing symptoms associated with ____ are candidates for pulse oximetry

pneumonia, asthma, or bronchitis

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49

If necessary, the pulse oximetry can be placed on the

earlobe

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50

First information recorded from patient

chief complaint and weight

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51

Normal BMI range

18.5 to 24.9

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52

For infants, weight is more accurate if the infant

lies down or sits on the scale

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53

Infant scales measure in

pounds and ounces

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54

Sims’

laying on the left side with legs flexed at a 90-degree angle

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55

When is sims’ position used?

exams involving the rectum, enemas

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56

Supine position

lying on back

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57

Knee-chest

prone (lying on the stomach) and bent at the waist, resting on the knees with the arms above the head

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58

When is the knee-chest position used

gynecological or rectal exams. Treatments of spinal adjustments

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59

Trendelenburg

lying with the head lower than the legs (forced circulation to vital organs)

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60

When is Trendelenburg used?

shock

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61

Dorsal recumbent

lying on the back with knees up and feet flat on the table

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62

When is dorsal recumbent used?

catheterizations, genital examination of younger children and adolescents

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63

Fowler’s

sitting position, 90 degrees

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64

When is Fowler’s used?

Exams involving the eyes, ears, nose, throat, and chest

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Semi-fowlers

sitting position, 45 degrees

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66

When is semi-fowler’s used

exams involving the chest. When the patient cannot lay flat and for patients experiencing SOB

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67

Lithotomy

lying flat on the table with buttocks at the end of the table and feet resting in stirrups

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68

When is lithotomy used?

Female pelvic exams

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69

Sphygmomanometer is used on the

arm (blood pressure)

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70

Ophthalmoscope is used on the

eyes

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71

Tuning fork is used on the

head

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72

Temporal thermometer is used on the

forehead

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73

Speculum is used on the

nose

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74

What information should the MA check when preparing medication

name of the medication, dosage, time and route of administration

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75

First check of medication

comparing the administration order to the medication

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76

Second check

after the medication is prepared for administration

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77

Third check

completed immediately prior to administering the medication to the patient

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78

Why are alcohol swabs used on a vial stopper?

prevent the introduction of germs into the solution and keep the needle sterile

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79

The lower the gauge number

the wider the lumen

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80

Guage 14 is the

largest

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81

Gauge 31 is the

smallest

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82

Needle gauge for Intradermal (ID)

27 to 28

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83

Needle gauge for subcutaneous (SC)

25 to 26

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84

Needle gauge for intramuscular (IM)

20 to 23

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85

Needle length of ID

⅜ inch

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86

Needle length of SC

½ inch, ⅝ inch

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87

Needle length for IM

1 to 3 inches

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88

Common IM injection sites

deltoid muscle, ventrogluteal muscle, vastus lateralis muscle

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89

Angle for IM injection

90

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90

Common SC injection sites

upper outer arm, abdomen, thigh

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91

Angle for SC injection

45

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92

Heparin and insulin are examples of

SC injections

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93

Common site for ID injections

mid forearm (TB), back (allergy testing)

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94

Angle for ID injections

10 to 15

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95

When administering an ID injection, do not

massage or apply pressure to the site

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96

Irrigation solutions should be

tepid or room temperature

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97

If the irrigation solution is too cold, it can lead to

dizziness or discomfort

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98

Abrasion

scrape or rub

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99

Contusion

bruise

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100

Strain

overstretching of a muscle or tendon

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