China 1900-1989 : dates

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Japan defeated China in war

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1

Japan defeated China in war

1984-5

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2

Emperor Guangxu’s 100 day reform - failed

1898

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3

Boxer Uprising

1899-1901

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4

Major attacks on westerners spread to three provinces in NE China

1900

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5

Japanese troops of 20,000 arrived in Beijing and ended the Boxer’s siege that has lasted 55 days

Sep 1900

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6

Boxer Protocol

1901

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7

China humiliated by foreign powers which extended their control over China’s economy by establishing concessions

late 19th century

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8

Self strengthening reforms

1902-1911

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9

Death of dowager Empress Cixi + Ascension of Emperor Puyi

1908

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10

…. Revolution

1911

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11

Yuan shikai becomes leader of China

1912

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12

GMD established

1912

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13

Japans 21 demands

issued in 1915

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14

Death of Shikai

1916

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15

Warlord Era

1916-27

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16

Sun Yat-Sen becomes leader of nationalist government

1917

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17

May the 4th movement

1919

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18

10,000 students arranged a protest in Tiananmen square demanding that the gov refuse to sign the ToV

4th May 1919

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19

Gov initially refuse to sign ToV, but eventually sign in

1923

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20

CCP founded by Chen Duxiu with the help of Comintern agents

1921

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21

CCP join Comintern; USSR provide party with $5000 a year

1921

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22

Reformation of the nationalist GMD

1919

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23

Sun Yat-Sen’s ‘three principles of the people’ - draws upon Western ideals

1923

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24

Comintern influence - USSR provide aid to help bring an end to the warlords

1923

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25

Death of Sun Yat-Sen and Chiang Kai-Shek becomes leader of GMD

1925

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26

First United Front formed

1925

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27

Northern Expedition

1926-28

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28

Shanghai Massacres

Jan-March 1927

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29

Start of the White Terror

12 April 1927

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30

‘Chinese Soviet Republic’ set up in Jiangxi province

1928

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31

Japan invade Manchuria

1931

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32

Manchuria renamed Manchukuo

1932

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33

Pu Yi installed as emperor of Manchukuo

1934

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34

Comintern agent Otto Braun arrives

1933

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35

Failure of Braun’s role in CCP military actions

1930’s

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36

Extermination Campaigns

1930-34

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37

1st extermination campaign

Oct 1930 - failed

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38

2nd/3rd extermination campaign

April and July 1931 - failed

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39

4th extermination campaign

early 1933 - failed

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40

5th extermination campaign

Sept 1933-Oct 1934 - partially successful

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41

Long March

1934

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42

Zunyi meeting

Jan 1935

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43

CCP arrived in Yanan

Oct 1935

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44

Sino-Japanese war

1937 - 45

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45

Rape of Nanjing

1937

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46

Japanese advances and holding of Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, Wuhan.. (most of Eastern China)

1937-38

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47

Japanese army overstretched (end to their advances)

1938

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48

US supply China with resources

Dec 1941

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49

Pearl Harbour

1941

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50

Bombing of Hiroshima + Nagasaki

1945

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51

Japanese surrender

Aug 1945

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52

Outbreak of civil war between GMD + CCP

1945

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53

GMD and CCP at full scale civil ar after failed ceasefire

July 1946 ; (Jan 1946 - signed failed ceasefire)

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54

CCP drove out of base in Yanan by GMD forces attempting to take control of Manchuria

March 1947

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55

Red Army renamed the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) under Lin Bao

1946

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56

Lin Bao launches full scale attack on GMD

May 1947

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57

Lin Bao and CCP gain control of Manchuria

Nov 1948

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58

PLA control of Beijing

Jan 1949

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59

Mao declares creation of the People’s Republic of China

Oct 1949

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60

Chiang K-S join GMD forces in Taiwan after CCP victory

Dec 1949

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61

New constitution implemented: National People’s Congress (NPC)

1954

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62

Mao elected president and Zhou Enlai as first premier of the State Council

1954

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63

CCP membership grows from 4.5m in …. to 6.5 m in….

1949-1953

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64

the other existing 10 parties in 1949 had been suppressed by….

1952

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65

when were women still second-class citizens

1949

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66

when was female infanticide as high as 10%

1949

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67

when was foot binding outlawed

1912

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68

Electoral Law

1953

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69

Women given equal voting rights

1953

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70

All China Women’s Federation

1949

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71

12% of NPC deputies elected were women

1953

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72

Marriage Law

1950

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73

CCP introduces policies promoting birth control + trained midwives to make childbirth safer

1953

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74

76% of divorces granted were initiated by women

1951

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75

Thought reform

1951

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76

Laogai camps

1951-54

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77

Agrarian Reform Law

1950

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78

agricultural output increased by 15% a year in ….

1950-52

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79

MATs (Mutual Aid Teams) ; 5-10

1951-53

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80

40% of peasants belonged to MATs by…

1952

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81

APCs (Agricultural Producers Co-operatives) ; 20-30

1953-55

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82

Only 14% of peasants joined APCs by...

1953

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83

Advanced APCs ; 150-200

1955-57

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84

Record harvests

1956

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85

90% of peasants belonged to APCs by….

1957

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86

First 5YP

1953-57

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87

In…. industrial output was 50% lower than in the mid 1930’s

1949

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88

CCP nationalised heavy industry and railways

1949-51

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89

Mao signed a Treaty of Friendship with Stalin

1950

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90

Economic aid from SU: a $300m loan and the provision of 10,00 industrial advisers

1950

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91

China gave major economic concessions, in mining rights to the USSR in Manchuria + in the Western province of Xinjiang

1950’s

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92

Korean War

1950-53

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93

Khrushchev recognises that 1950 treaty was unfair

1953

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94

Khrushchev offers a better trade deal + gave up USSR’s economic control of Manchuria and Xinjiang and promised assistance in starting China;s civilian nuclear programme

1954

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95

Cities grew by 40m in ….

1950-57

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96

3 AND 5 ANTIS

1951-52

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97

3 Antis launched - against Bureaucrats

1951

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98

5 Antis launched - against Businessmen

1952

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99

2 million in the laogai camps

1953

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100

100 flowers campaign

1956-57

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