Psych 311 Exam 2

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What is learning?

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107 Terms

1

What is learning?

  • an enduring change in behavior as a result of experience

  • encoded by changes in the brain

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2

What are the two types of learning?

non-associative and associative

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3

What is non-associative learning?

When a stimulus is not paired with a behavior

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4

What are two types of non-associative learning?

  • habituation

  • sensitization

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5

What is associative learning?

when a response becomes associated with a stimulus

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6

What are the two types of associative learning?

  • classical conditioning

  • operant conditioning

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7

What is habituation?

  • decreased response to the same, repeated stimulus

  • tends to be toward non-threatening stimulus

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8

what is sensitization?

  • Increased response to the same, repeated stimulus

  • tends to be toward a threatening or arousing stimulus

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9

What is an animal commonly used to test habituation and sensitization?

Aplysia california and their Gill-Withdrawl Reflex

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10

What is classical conditioning?

  • AKA Pavlovian conditioning

  • Learned response (CR) to a neutral stimulus by pairing the neutral stimulus (CS) with one (US) that evokes a natural response (UR)

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11

What is associative learning?

  • Operant conditioning

    • Consequences of an action will determine how likely it is to happen again

    • Behaviors that lead to good outcomes will be repeated

    • Behaviors that lead to negative outcomes are less likely to occur again

  • Use of reinforcement or punishment to shape behavior

    • positive

    • negative

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12

What is an example of positive reinforcement?

add appetitive stimulus following correct behavior

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13

What is an example of negative reinforcement?

remove noxious stimulus following correct behavior

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14

What is an example of positive punishment?

add noxious stimulus following behavior

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15

What is an example of negative punishment?

remove appetitive stimulus following behavior

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16

What is memory?

Internal records of past experience as a result of learning

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17

What is short term memory?

Working memory: short term, active storage

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18

What are the two types of long-term memory?

Declarative and non-declarative

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19

What is declarative memory?

  • memories that can be recalled

    • semantic: facts or events that did not happen to you;

    • episodic: things that happened to you

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20

What is non-declarative memory?

procedural: remembering how to do things like ride a bike

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21

What type of memory does the hippocampus store?

  • declarative memory

    • episodic memory

    • semantic memory

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22

What type of memory does the prefrontal cortex store?

working memory

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23

What type of memory does the cerebral cortex store?

perceptual memory, semantic memory, priming

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24

What type of memory does the amygdala store?

emotional memory

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25

What procedure was performed on patient H.M.?

had 2/3 of his hippocampus removed at age 27

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26

What were the effects of patient H.M.’s procedure?

  • he still had working memory and procedural memory

  • he could not convert new declarative memories into long term memories

  • he could not remember the years just before surgery

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27

What were H.M.’s deficits?

anterograde amnesia and some retrograde amnesia

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28

What did H.M.’s deficits tell us?

  • Memory has many facets, each facet does not necessarily rely on the hippocampus.

  • The hippocampus may be involved in converting/storing new memories into long term storage, but likely doesn’t store memories long term

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29

What is the pathway for memory consolidation in the hippocampus?

sensory cortices → dentate gyrus → CA3 → CA1 → association cortices

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30

What stage in memory consolidation are the sensory cortices active?

sensory information

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31

What stage in memory consolidation are the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1 active?

short-term memory

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32

What stage in memory consolidation are the association cortices active?

long-term memory

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33

What part of the brain are place cells located?

in the hippocampus

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34

What are place cells?

  • networks of cells that fire when rat is in a specific place in the environment

  • silent when they are anywhere else

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35

Where does long-term potentiation occur?

occurs in the hippocampus and amygdala

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36

what is long-term potentiation?

persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity

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37

What are ways to test memory?

  • radial arm maze

  • delayed t-maze

  • barnes maze

  • delayed matching to position (DMTP)

  • morris water maze

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38

What does the radial arm maze test?

working and reference memory

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39

What is the resting membrane potential in mV?

-60 and -80 mV

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40

What 3 ions contribute to the resting membrane potential?

Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Chloride (Cl-)

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41

How does the neuron maintain resting membrane potential?

sodium-potassium pumps and potassium leak channels

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42

Do sodium-potassium pumps or potassium leak channels use ATP?

sodium-potassium pumps

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43

what are the properties of ion channels (Na+ and K+)

  • voltage-gated

  • use passive diffusion

    • no energy

    • ion channels only let molecules that are small enough to pass through

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44

What are the characteristics of the resting potential?

  • Open passive K+ channel

    • creates the resting potential

  • Closed gated K+ channel

  • Closed Na+ channel

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45

What are the characteristics of depolarization to the threshold?

  • Open passive K+ channels

  • Open Na+ channel

    • some Na+ channels open, depolarizing cell to threshold

  • Closed gated K+ channel

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46

What are the characteristics of depolarizing after threshold?

  • Open passive K+ channels

  • Na+ channels are inactivated

  • Gated K+ channels open

  • re-polarizing and even hyper polarizing the cell (after potential)

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47

What are characteristics of returning to resting potential

  • all gated channels close

  • the cell return to its resting potential

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48

What are the two types of refractory periods?

Relative and absolute

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49

What is absolute refractory?

  • Another action potential cannot occur

  • v-gated Na+ channels inactivated

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50

What is relative refractory?

  • Another action potential can occur if a super strong stimulus is present

  • V-gated K+ channels open

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51

What are two ways to improve conduction in a neuron?

increase myelination and increase diameter of axon

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52

What sensation does the primary sensory neuron, Aα, perceive?

proprioception

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53

What sensation does the primary sensory neuron, Aβ, perceive?

touch

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54

What sensation does the primary sensory neuron, Aδ, perceive?

pain (mechanical and thermal)

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55

What sensation does the primary sensory neuron, C, perceive?

pain (mechanical, thermal, chemical)

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56

What are the characteristics of EPSP?

  • Small depolarization (+) of the membrane

  • Brings the neuron a bit close to threshold → more likely to fire action potential

  • Excitatory neurotransmitter action

    • glutamate

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57

What are the characteristics of IPSP?

  • Small hyperpolarization (-) of the membrane

  • Bring neuron farther away from threshold → less likely to fire action potential

  • inhibitory neurotransmitter action

    • Gaba

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58

What is summation?

when EPSPs and IPSPs add together

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59

What are glutamate receptors?

NMDA, AMPA, mGluR

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60

What happens when glutamate binds to glutamate receptors?

allows cations (Na+ and Ca2+) to enter cell

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61

What happens when the presynaptic cells releases GABA and GABA binds to GABA receptors

Cl- channel opens, negative charge spreads throughout cell. This is IPSP

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62

What happens when a positive action potential makes it to the axon terminal?

voltage gated calcium channels open. the calcium bind to vesicles causing them to reach neurotransmitters

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63

what is synaptic plasticity?

change in strength (or number) of synaptic connections

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64

how long is short term synaptic plasticity?

seconds, minutes

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65

What presynaptic changes can happen in relation to synaptic plasticity?

  • Facilitation: increased NT release

  • Depression: decreased NT release

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66

What specific presynpatic changes occur due to short term synaptic plasticity?

  • Number of release/docking sites

  • Ca2+ channel conductance

  • Amount of NT per vesicle

  • Number of vesicles = size of ready-releasable pool

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67

How long is long term synaptic plasticity?

hours to days

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68

What are the two types of long term synaptic plasticity?

  • Long-Term potentiation

    • increased EPSP after high frequency stimulation

    • AMPA receptors insertion

  • Long-Term depression

    • Decreased EPSP following low frequency stimulation

    • AMPA receptors internalization

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69

What can we learn from in vivo electrophysiology?

  • Which cell populations fire during behavior

  • how certain cells are firing

    • frequency, temporal aspects

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70

What can we learn from in vitro electrophysiology?

  • How ions are moving through the membrane

    • voltage clamp: holding the voltage constant to see how ions move

      • at a particular voltage, what ions are moving in and out of the cell

  • How certain ions moving through the membrane influence membrane voltage

    • current clamp: injecting a specified amount of a particular ion and seeing how it changes the voltage of a cell

      • can measure action potentials, and show which ions contribute to action potential firing

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71

What are the long term effects of drinking?

  • substance use disorder

    • co-users were at 3/38 greater odds of having an AUD but not CUD

  • behavioral

    • decreased academic performance

    • SAM doubled the odds of drunk driving, social consequences, and harms to self

  • neuro-cognitive

    • poorer selective attention accuracy

    • greater discounting of future rewards

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72

What is non-contingent exposure

  • experimenter-adminstered, animal does not choose to take the drug

  • intraperitoneal injection, subcutaneous injection, oral gavage

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73

what does the animal model of drug self-administration

  • operant task: response required for reinforcement

  • routes: I'.V/, oral ingestion, inhalation

  • dose, reinforcement schedule, cues can all be manipulated

  • what this can tap into:

    • cumulative intake

    • patterns of intake

    • increase in intake (escalation)

    • motivation to receive the drug

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74

what are self-administration caveats?

animals dont like many of the drugs humans do: THC and LSD

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75

What happens in the brain when you consume alcohol and THC together?

  • both bind to cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R)

  • located on membrane of presynaptic axon terminal

  • inhibit presynaptic neuron

    • increase or decrease neurotransmitter release

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76

How does combined exposure to alcohol and THC affect the current frequency in a CB1R-dependent manner?

reduces miniature excitatory postsynaptic

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77

In control rats, 40 Hz stimulation inhibits local field potential in prefrontal cortex

LFP: firing of a group of neurons; extracellular recording

CB1R agonist injection increased LFP2, i.e., reduced the magnitude of the initial inhibition

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78

CB1R stimulation ___ PFC inhibition under 40 Hz

reduces

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79

GABAaR stimulation ____ that inhibition

restores

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80

What does GABA facilitate?

LTD

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81

What are classical hormone receptors?

  • nuclear receptors

  • directly influence genetic expression

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82

What are non-classical hormone receptors?

  • cell-surface receptors

  • indirectly influence genetic expression via second messengers

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83

What are peptide hormones?

  • lipophobic

  • act through non-classical signaling

  • Ex. angiotensin, gherkin, insulin, leptin, oxytocin, somatostatin, vasopressin, growth hormone

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84

What are different sex hormones?

  • estrogens

    • primary type: estradiol (E)

  • androgens

    • testosterone (T)

    • dihydrotestosterone

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85

What is the HPG Axis: sex hormone signaling for males

  • luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulated T production in testes

  • follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and T promotes sperm production

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86

What is the HPG Axis: sex hormones for females

  • follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates E production in ovaries

  • lutenizing hormone (LH) stimulates P production - prepare for ovulation

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87

What are the two major phases of the human menstrual cycle

follicular phase: before ovulation, egg is maturing, endometrium is being built up

luteal phase: after ovulation, egg is dying, endometrium reaches peak thickness

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88

What are the coordination of hormones in the human menstrual cycle?

LH surge triggers ovulation

progesterone stimulates endometrial shedding

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89

What issues can occur with the humans menstrual cycle?

  • endometrial cancer

  • polycystic ovary syndrome

  • infertility

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90

What are the four phases of rat estrous cycle?

  • destroys 1

    • sometimes called metestrus

  • diestrus 2

  • proestrus

    • peak E and P

    • ovulation

    • sex behavior

  • estrus

    • sex behavior

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91

How do you determine stages of the estrous cycle?

  • vaginal lavage

    • wash out vaginal cells, stain, visualize

  • cornification

    • terminal differentiation and programmed cell death

  • cells look different depending on the day of estrus cycle

    • diestrus: cells dies and leukocytes clear debris

    • proestrus: high E, healthy cells with nuclei

    • estrus: lower E and P, cornfield epithelial cells (dying)

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92

What are the characteristics of the estrous cycle?

  • sex behavior is dependent on sex hormone levels

  • females are only receptive to copulation when estrogen and progesterone are high

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93

What are the characteristics of the menstrual cycle?

  • humans and primates

  • sex behaviors is independent of sex hormones

  • females are receptive to copulation regardless of hormone levels

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94

What are sexual behaviors of male rat?

  • mounts

  • intromission

  • ejaculation

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95

What are sexual behaviors of female rats?

  • proceptive behaviors

    • hopping, darting, ear wiggling

  • lordosis

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96

What brain regions are involved in sexual behavior in rats?

  • medial pre optic area

  • basolateral amygdala

  • mediobasal hypothalamus

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97

How is the medial preoptic area involved in sexual behavior in rats?

  • in anterior hypothalamus

  • for masculine sexual behaviors, ex. mounting

  • lesions inhibit copulation

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98

How is the basolateral amygdala involved in sexual behavior in rats?

  • lesions reduce rates of responding to receive a sexual reinforcer

    • used male rats as subjects

    • sexual activity is normally rewarding

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99

How is the mediobasal hypothalamus involved in sexual behavior in rats?

  • for female rat sexual receptivity

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100

What are the the two chemicals involved in sex behavior?

dopamine and opioids

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