Chapter 3-4 (Social 30)

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dictatorship, unelected leader ex. king

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to be free of authoritarian power --> people = power ex. parliamentary, constitutional monarchies

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Classical Liberalism

The political ideology of individual liberty, private property, a competitive market economy, free trade, and limited government.

  • humans can make rational decisions

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  • "rebirth"

  • revival of Greek and Roman thinking

  • support teachings of church through reason

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Protestant Reformation

A religious movement that attempted to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches

  • reason is as significant as faith for Christians

  • opposition to church and hierarchy

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  • Age of Reason

  • beliefs of classical liberalism promoted

  • the individual

  • question authority

  • rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.

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Decleration of the Rights of Man

National Assembly adopted a statement of revolutionary ideas that ended special rights of 1st and 2nd estates, allowed french equal rights, and gave the power to the state over the church.

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classical liberal economic theory

A body of thought based on Adam Smith's ideas about the forces of supply and demand in the marketplace, emphasizing the social and economic benefits when individuals pursue their own self-interest.

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Laissez-faire economics

economic system where government should not interfere in the marketplace

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What lead to the growth of laissez faire economics? (3)

  • New ideas about human potential/individual worth ("commoners" free to create wealth/ achieve status)

  • A government friendly to business and innovation

  • A huge amount of investment capital and cheap labour, people encouraged by possibility of reward

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Great Law of Peace

  • Haudensaunee (Iroquois) peoples influenced liberal thought in North America.

  • unity among the nations, divided power between levels of government, and equal participation in government (including women)

  • guaranteed freedom of speech and the rights of individuals.

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security of individual (sacrifice individuality to monarch)

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govt for protection (providing natural rights)

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General will (consensus)

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balance 3 branches of govt (no branch too powerful)

  • worth/equality of individual + accountability of govt

  • each section of govt check others power

  • judiciary - judge laws, executive govt - laws into action, parliament/legislative - make/change laws

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Adam Smith

  • founder of modern economics

  • created GDP -limited govt, society stable --> encourage capitalist trade (laissez faire)

  • self-interest in market --> strengthen economy --> benefit people

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John Stuart Mill

  • political freedom for everyone (rights for women)

  • protect private property, rule of law

  • harm principle: limitations only on things that will harm others

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American Liberalism

  • John Locke Ideas - Declaration of Independence --> to secure natural rights --> govt protection but people still of power

  • did not apply to all citizens (slaves)

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British Liberalism

  • took advantage of colonies --> British provide land so they are justified in taxing colonies

  • Stamp Act = British first direct tax on America

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French Revolution

  • inequality

  • king --> absolute power

  • clergy/noble --> privilege

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What causes revolution?

  • famine, inequality enlightenment, Ancien Regime

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Iran (current situation)

  • similar to French Revolution

  • new leader promised better economy 0 made situation worse (inflation raised taxes)

  • favoring the rich

  • leadership based on religion shaped structure of society

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who imposes power

  • govt

  • imposes limits on: laws, forces

  • govt restrained by constitution is needed

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society norms

  • people forced to conform or ostracized

  • society is the tyrant (cruel ruler)

  • inescapable unless isolation

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Harm Principle

  • Mills limits

  • other- regarding action - an action that directly harms another individual

  • self-regarding action - actions that only harm individual

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  • economic system that makes monarch and few individuals rich

  • certain companies have monopoly over industries

  • deep economic divisions

  • hard for average person to rise classes

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Free Market

  • Adam smith favoured over mercantilism

  • freely compete ( stronger/better forces will do better)

  • Meritocracy

  • Invisible Hand - when people pursue their self-interest --> unintentionally contribute to the well-being of society

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What caused the Industrial Revolution?

  • large labour forces: large population, rise in food production

  • Science/Technology/Entrepreneurship: understand world/science for agriculture, entrepreneurship--> provide motivation--> increase production and innovation

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What principles does classical liberalism emrace?

  • Rule of Law

  • Individual rights and freedoms

  • Private property

  • Economic freedom

  • Self-interest

  • Competition

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What is the "rule of law"?

Everyone must follow the law. Leaders must obey the law. Government must obey the law. No one is above the law.

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Where did classical liberalism emerge from?

Renaissance/Reformation (14-16th Century) Enlightenment/Age of Reason (17th Century) French/American Revolution (18th Century)

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Where can the influence of classical liberalism can be seen?

Britain and America during the Industrial Revolution (19th Century)

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Why did the Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 1750's?

  • Government was a Constitutional Monarchy

  • Agricultural Revolution and Enclosure Acts

  • Excess capital to invest in technology

  • Extensive international access to resources

  • New Factories being developed to house new machines

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How did the Industrial Revolution change 19th-century society in several ways?

  • New class structure (Nouveau Riche)

  • Growing gap between rich (owners) and poor (workers)

  • Very poor working/living conditions of factory workers

  • Mass urbanization

  • New social issues (crime, pollution, disease, housing)

  • End of subsistence living (enough resources for survival)

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Enclosure Movement

(1700s) - privatization of common lands in England, which contributed to the increase in population and the rise of industrialization.

  • land owners fence off land

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How did economy change during Industrial Revolution?

Changed from mercantilist (government controlling) to capitalist economy

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nouvaeu riche

  • mid class rise in wealth (more power and influence)

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Gilded Age

1870s - 1890s - (looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor)

  • economic growth in US

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Factory Life

12 hour workdays, harsh, bad working conditions, little pay, there weren't laws about protecting workers

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Enivronmental Issues during Industrial Revolution

  • black smoke in air

  • human/chemical waste in rivers

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Triangle Fire

a fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146 people, mostly women.

  • died because the doors were locked

  • Dramatized the poor working conditions and let to federal regulations to protect workers.'

  • run by Isaac Harris and Max Blanck

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Welfare Capitalism

  • An approach to labor relations in which companies meet some of their workers' needs without prompting by unions, thus preventing strikes and keeping productivity high

  • governments provide protection for workers as a policy

  • some think this can lead to a lazy society

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Factory Acts

  • laws passed by British parliamentary for better working conditions

(ex. children work max 12 hours day, illegal to employ children under 9, compulsory education up to 9 years old)

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Theodore Roosevelts Square Deal

  • founded progressive party

  • changed needed in society for this

  • equal opportunities

  • rewards for good service

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Points of Progressive Party (1912)

  • equal suffrage

  • Duty of nation = conservation of human resources

  • prevent industrial accidents injuries

  • prohibit child labor

  • national health service

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Causes of the Great Depression

  • after stock market crash

  • demand sustained by credit

  • agriculture suffering

  • growth in construction

  • stock market speculation

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Unemployment significant in Great Depression

  • weak bank system (rely on own resources)

  • less money in circulation

  • deflation

  • business cut costs

  • people lose jobs

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Classical Liberals and Boom and Bust Cycle

  • free market will naturally sort it out

  • people responsible for preparing for future fluctuations

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John Maynard Keyne

  • how government should manage boom and bust cycle

  • government intervention in economy when needed

  • government save when economy good, spend when bad

  • government use fiscal and monetary policies to lessen shock of cycle

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fiscal policy

Government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling taxing and spending.

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monetary policy

the setting of the money supply by policymakers in the central bank

  • and interest rates

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Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal

  • to prevent economic depression

  • Relief - increase employment

  • Recovery - get economy back into high gear

  • Reform - regulate banks, abolish child labour, conserve farmland

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  • skilled textile workers had jobs taken away due to labourer's

  • Army of Redressers formed by Ned Ludd

  • broke into factories and destroyed machinery

  • were unsuccessful - silenced through use of violence and machine breaking becomes punishable by death

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  • political and social reform

  • universal suffrage (men over 21)

  • voting by secret ballet

  • pay for members of parliament

  • provide benefits to working class (fix problems of classical liberalism)

  • petitions rejected, many killed, but ideas were used in Acts 40 years later

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Utopian Socialist

  • end to band conditions of workers

  • Robert Owen, Charles Fourier, Claude Saint-Simon

  • education and working conditions improve --> peace and happiness

  • cooperation betweeen workers

  • was sucessful --> companies and education system using reward method

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  • socialism

  • developed by Karl Marx

  • overthrow bourgeoise (owners) and have control over production

  • government owned land, economic equality

  • used by soviet union and china (hard to compete with classical liberalism)

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Classical Conservatism

  • government represent the legacy of the past and well being of the present

  • stability of society is all important

  • limited people of power (some people more suited for power than others)

  • used around the world

  • Edmund Burke

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Con of classical liberalism

led to inequalities and issues in society

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What new ideologies emerged to compete with classical liberalism for the basis of society? (5)

Luddites Chartism Utopian Socialism Marxism Classical Conservatism

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How did Classical liberalism respond to these new ideologies?

  • Introducing legislation to protect workers (Factory Acts)

  • Providing a safety net to head off demand for labour unions (welfare capitalism)

  • Helping to enforce equal negotiation between workers and owners (square deal)

  • Bring about more equality to society (Progressivism)

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The movement in the late 1800s to increase democracy in America by curbing the power of the corporation. It fought to end corruption in government and business, and worked to bring equal rights of women and other groups that had been left behind during the industrial revolution.

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How does modern liberalism differs from classical liberalism?

  • More government involvement in economy (Keynesian)

  • Enforcing labour laws

  • Recognizing labour unions

  • Providing a social welfare net (minimum standard of living)

  • Providing equality and suffrage to more groups in society

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Czar Nicholas II

-Russian Czar during WWI

  • absolute rule (Divine Right Theory)

  • unpopular with Russian people

  • Imperial Russia

  • overthrown by Bolsheviks after November Revolution (1917)

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  • party of revolutionary Marxists

  • led by Vladimir Lenin

  • slow industrialization

  • supported by workers, peasants and soldiers -seized power in Russia in 1917.

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-The elected parliament -Started by Czar Nicholas II

  • seemed like the Czar was giving his people power but also introduced fundamental laws -fundamental Laws: Czar could easily get rid of this if they made any laws or such that he didn't like (Czar above law)

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Bloody Sunday

1905; peaceful march by Russians turned deadly when Czar's guards fire on crowd, killing hundreds

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What was the final straw for the start of the Russian Revolution?

  • lost war with Japan (losing WWI battles)

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March 8, 1917

  • riots take place in Petrograd (St. Petersburg)

  • International Women's Day

  • Textile worker's strike

  • "Bread and Peace"—an end to World War I, to food shortages, and to czarism.

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  • Complete government control

  • elite and non-elite (hierarchy)

  • use of propaganda, force and terror, and complete control of media -a response to liberalism ex. Radical (Soviet Union) or Reactionary (Nazi Germany)

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Russian Civil War

when "white" anticommunists fought the "red" communists (Bolsheviks) to decide how Russia would be governed

  • red wins to establish communism

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Marxism vs. Leninism (1 similarity, 3 differences)

Agree - history dealt with class struggle --> needs to be fixed Differences - (1) Marxism = sees struggles between capitalists and workers Leninism = capitalists against workers/peasants

(2) Marxism= workers conditions become so bad revolution automatically happens Leninism = revolution will not happen without guidance of revolutionaries

(3) Marxism= revolution ends with communal ownership of wealth Leninism = revolution ends by single party ensuring values are followed

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NEP (New Economic Policy)

Capitalist Economic Policy Lenin establishes to improve Russia's economy after the revolution

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The Red Terror

a period of political repression and mass killings carried out by Bolsheviks after the beginning of the Russian Civil War in 1918

  • get rid of Bolshevik enemies

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  • 1924 -power after Lenins death

  • leader of USSR

  • 5 Year Plan

  • Controlled Economy

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5 year plan

  • development of iron and steel, machine-tools, electric power and transport. -increase in coal and iron production and - increase in electric power

  • reasoning: without industrialization Russia would not be able to defend itself against capitalist countries in the west

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-everything goes to the government and then is shared to the people

  • All farm land is to be pooled into giant collective farms to increase output Kulaks (wealthier peasants) resist in the Ukraine

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Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour. They were their own class.

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  • felt threated by Ukraine

  • a man-made famine-genocide in which the USSR starved the people of Ukraine; killed millions

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  • Joseph Stalin's policy of exiling or killing millions of his opponents and enemies in the communist party in the Soviet Union

  • sent to gulags

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Propaganda in the Soviet Union

  • against bourgeoise (capitalist class who own most of society's wealth and means of production.)

  • support proletarians (workers) and say they are happy

  • anti-liberal

  • glorying regime

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  • Soviet labor camps located in Siberia

  • for enemies of the state

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-Stalin's secret police

  • sent political opponents to gulag camps

  • they are the law

  • police state - to instill fear

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Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army

  • was sent to a purge by Stalin

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Personality Cult

excessive public admiration for or devotion to a political leader.

  • Stalin portrayed as a god

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politcal spectrum

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  • a political system headed by a dictator - calls for extreme nationalism and racism and has no tolerance for opposition

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Characteristics of facism

  • anti-intellectualism

  • hierarchy

  • glorification of work

  • society must dominate other nations (have to be obedient, state comes first)

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How did Hitler come to power?

  • Treaty Of Versailles caused hyperinflation, unemployment, great depression

  • Hitler promised change

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Authoritarian Rule in Germany

  • ruled by absolute kings Kaisers

  • Weimar Republic - democracy that had instability and chaos (accepting treaty of Versailles)

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Facism vs Communism

similarities - government complete control over economy

differences - fascism -government ownership/control is for military -economic decisions benefit party and elite, rather than workers

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Munich Putsch

Hitler's attempt to overthrow the Weimar government

  • resulted in him in jail

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Reichstag Fire

parliament building set on fire and blamed on communists' plot

  • gives Hitler Enabling Act to be above the law

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SA - Brownshirts

used violence to attack socialists and communists and to protect officials of the Nazi party

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Aryan Race

Hitlers version of the perfect people, "blonde hair and blue eyes"

  • helped promote antisemitism (back stabbers)

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Nuremberg Laws

laws defining the status of Jews and withdrawing citizenship from persons of non-German blood

  • they were blamed for war loses, and economic failure.

  • took away many of their rights

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  • Charles Darwin

  • some nations are more fit to survive

  • eugenics - selective breeding (only certain traits should be passed on)

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Captain of Industry vs. Robber Baron

  • "robber baron" was applied to powerful nineteenth-century industrialists who were viewed as having used questionable practices to amass their wealth.

  • "captains of industry" were business leaders whose means of amassing a personal fortune contributed positively to the country in some way.

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Theodore Roosevelt

  • reformer president

  • government intervention for food safety

  • square deal to prevent large companies from having marketplace control

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William Howard Taft

  • us president

  • modern liberalists

  • promoted rooselevets ideas

  • break up trusts (large business)

  • Sherman Anti- Trust Act to prevent monopiles

  • wanted government intervention

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Alphonse Desjardins

  • Created credit Unions and community banks

  • didnt like high interest costs

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