Physio Quiz & HW

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The refractory period occurs when_______.

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1

The refractory period occurs when_______.

voltage-gated sodium channels are inactivated and potassium channels are open

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2

A threshold stimulus immediately __________

opens voltage-gated sodium channels

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3

In myelinated axons, an action potential occurs _________ and they propagate __________.

at nodes of Ranvier; rapidly

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4

Concentration gradients exist across the plasma membrane., Specifically, there are ___________.

more potassium ions inside and more sodium ions outside of the plasma membrane

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5

The value of the resting membrane potential is ___________.

-70 mV

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6

The Na+/K+ pump transports ________.

Na+ out of and K+ into the cell

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7

Neurons that lie entirely within the CNS are called ___________.

interneurons

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8

Which of the following glial cells become part of the blood-brain barrier?

astrocytes

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9

A neuron under the influence of a neurotransmitter that opens K+ channels will _____________ (two answers)

  • be less likely to fire an action potential

  • become hyperpolarized

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10

Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na+-K+ pump, is applied to a neuron. What effect will this have on the subsequent action potential fired by that neuron?

There will be no effect

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11

During the repolarization of a neuron:

K+ moves from cell to ECF

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12

Release of a neurotransmitter requires: (two answers)

  • Ca2+ entry into the cell

  • an action potential

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13

Communication between neurons is not always one-to-one. When a group of presynaptic neurons provides input to a smaller number of post-synaptic neurons it is called:

convergence

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14

What is the function of the cerebrospinal fluid? (three answers)

  • the CSF provides a route by which wastes can be removed from the CNS

  • the CSF provides protective padding for the brain

  • the buoyancy of the CSF reduces the weight of the brain

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15

The purpose of the blood-brain barrier is to

protect neurons from potentially harmful substances in the blood

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16

The pyramids are a region within the medulla responsible for which of the following?

The fact that each side of the brain controls the opposite side of the body

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17

What causes the depolarization phase of the action potential?

K+ exiting the cell through voltage-gated ion channels

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18

During the rising phase of the action potential ______________.

sodium moves down both a concentration and electrical gradient.

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19

Which of the following is TRUE about one of the two gates in NA+ channels in axons?

The closing of the inactivation gate stops the depolarizing during an action potential

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20

If a neuron has receptors for a particular neurotransmitter it will

respond in a similar way to an agonist of that neurotransmitter

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21

The ability of the nervous system to change activity at the synapse is called

synaptic plasticity

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22

Neural tissue has a minimal extracellular matrix so support and protection come from external sources. Which of the following are involved in this support and protection? (four answers)

  • cerebrospinal fluid

  • the meninges

  • glial cells

  • outer casing of bone

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23

Each of the following has lower concentrations in CSF compared with plasma EXCEPT:

a. Ca2+

b. Na+

c. K+

d. HCO3-

e. glucose;

Na+

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24

Each of the following regarding the blood-brain barrier is true except:

gap junctions exist between endothelial cells of the capillaries → has tight junctions

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25

Except in periods of starvation, the only fuel for the brain are __________ so 15% of blood pumped by the heart goes to the brain to supply enough __________ from which to generate ATP.

glucose - oxygen

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26

Which of the following pairings is not correct?

Thalamus; relays and modifies information going to and from the cerebellum → thalamus responsible for relaying information from the senses to the cerebral cortex

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27

Midbrain:

Relays signals & visual reflexes

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28

Medulla Oblongata:

Contains control centers for BP & breathing

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29

Hypothalmus:

hemostatsis

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30

Cerebellum:

Mvmt & cordination

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31

If you close your eyes and reach forward with one hand you will know the position of that hand because of ___________ activation.

proprioceptor

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32

A two-point discrimination test allows for the differentiation between

receptive fields

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33

Which of the following receptors fire rapidly when first activated, then slow and maintain their firing as long as the stimulus is present?

tonic receptors

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34

The intensity of a sensory stimulus is coded by

the frequency of action potentials

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35

A blow to the eye causes us to see a flash of light or "stars" even though the photoreceptor is not being activated by light. This can be explained by which of the following?

labeled line coding

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36

Chemicals such as histamine, prostaglandins, serotonin, and substance P

only sensitive and activate nociceptors

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37

Which of the following physiological responses results from sympathetic action? (three answers)

  • increase heart rate

  • dilation of blood vessels

  • stimulation of glycogenolysis

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38

The neurotransmitter norepinephrine is synthesized from

tyrosine

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39

The receptor found on most parasympathetic target cells is

muscarinic cholinergic

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40

The enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) breaks down

catecholamines

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41

The synapse of a somatic motor neuron on a muscle fiber is called the

neuromuscular junction

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42

When a skeletal muscle lengthens, its sarcomeres

lengthen

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43

Which of the following characteristics differentiates skeletal muscle from both cardiac and smooth muscle? (two answers)

  • multinucleated fibers

  • movement is controlled by a somatic motor neuron

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44

Why does rigor mortis occur after death?

myosin is tightly bound to actin

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45

If you want to study smooth muscle, it doesn't matter what organ it comes from because all smooth muscle is alike.

False

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46

Which of the following phases of a muscle twitch requires ATP? (two answers)

  • contraction period

  • relaxation period

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47

In smooth muscle, the Ca2+ for contraction comes from: (two answers)

  • extracellular fluid

  • sarcoplasmic reticulum

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48

Drug "X" inhibits acetylcholinesterase action within the neuromuscular junction. What would drug "X" do to the membrane potential of the muscle fiber?

it would remain depolarized

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49

Which of the following is NOT true regarding the innervation of skeletal muscle?

multiple motor units innervating a skeletal muscle also contact all at once

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50

The function of transverse tubules is to

rapidly conduct action potentials to the interior of the muscle fiber

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51

Each myosin head has a binding site for

actin and ATP

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52

The somatic motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscle fibers are called

alpha motor neurons

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53

Spinal reflexes are to the spinal cord as cranial reflexes are to the

brain

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54

Stretching the muscle spindle causes

reflex contraction of the muscle

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55

Which of the following helps us to maintain body position as we move through space?

postural reflexes

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56

Convergence describes

how multiple primary sensory neurons synapse on a single secondary neuron.

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57

Visceral pain is poorly localized and can be perceived to originate from a region of the body that is different from its actual location; this is called

referred pain

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58

Chronic pain is

only pathological

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59

The gate control theory of pain modulation states that pain transmission can be blocked by:

mechanical stimulation of A-beta fibers

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60

The vitreous chamber of the eye

helps to stabilize the structure of the eye and the retina

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61

The presence of two peripheral efferent neurons in a pathway is typical of the __________ division

autonomic

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62

The motor end plate is

a folded area of muscle cell membrane with ACh receptors clustered at the top of each fold

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63

For antagonist's muscle groups to move a limb, flexor contraction occurs coincident with:

relaxation of the extensor

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64

The contraction cycle is triggered by the rise in __________ released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum

Ca2+

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65

A motor unit consists of

one neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it controls

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66

Compared to skeletal muscle, the contraction of smooth muscle cells is

sustained without fatigue

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67

Which of the following statements is true? (ALL ARE TRUE)

  • cranial reflexes are integrated into the brain

  • visceral reflexes are controlled by autonomic neurons

  • reflex movements are integrated primarily into the spinal cord

  • spinal reflexes do not require input from the brain

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68

The _________ supply blood to the heart muscle itself

coronary arteries

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69

The right ventricle pumps ________ blood into the ___________ circulation

deoxygenated; pulmonary

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70

Which of the following is INCORRECT regarding diastole (filling of the heart)?

pressure in the ventricles is greater than in the atria

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71

Which of the following are common mechanisms used to control blood flow to different areas of the body? (two answers)

  • vasoconstriction of the blood vessels

  • vasodilation of blood vessels

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72

During the T wave, which of the following is true?

both ventricles are repolarizing

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73

Plasma proteins decrease in a person with liver failure. What effect does this have on capillary filtration/absorption?

net filtration increases

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74

The term for the production of blood cells is

hematopoiesis

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75

The glycoprotein thrombopoietin (TPO) regulated the growth and maturation of

megakaryocytes

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76

Calculate mean arterial pressure if a person has a blood pressure reading of 107/72

84 mm Hg

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77

(T/F) Sympathetic output from the cardiovascular control center acting on b2-adrenergic receptors causes vasodilation in the heart and vasoconstriction in skeletal muscles

False

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78

Which of these statements about the heart is false?

the action potential of a cardiac contractile cell is identical to that of a skeletal muscle cell

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79

Which of the following is the SAME regarding the action potential of a neuron and of a myocardial contractile cell? (two answers)

  • Na+ influx is responsible for the depolarization phase

  • K+ efflux is responsible for the rapid depolarization phase

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80

A withdrawal of parasympathetic nerve activity has which of the following effects?

increases heart rate

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81

Blood flow through an arteriole _______ when it dilates

increases

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82

If one arteriole constricts and nothing else changes, what will happen to mean arterial pressure?

it increases

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83

Systemic arterioles ___________ in response to decreasing oxygen

dilate

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84

Blood flow velocity is slowest in the

capillaries

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85

Which of the following vessels undergo a change in diameter based on neural input? (two answers)

  • arterioles

  • veins

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86

If blood pressure increases, the

net filtration across the capillary walls increases

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87

Which of the following is/are correct for arteries but not veins?

store pressure generated by the heart

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88

Local control of arteriolar resistance leads to an increase in blood flow to tissue when

H+ level increases

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89

Which of the following is NOT a mechanism used by the lymphatic system to control the flow of lymph?

osmosis

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90

Which blood elements are lacking a nucleus? (two answers)

  • erythrocytes

  • platelets

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91

Which of the following is the major contributor to the fact that water gets pulled from the interstitial fluid into capillaries?

albumins

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92

Normally, whole blood is composed of _____________% cells and ____________% plasma

40; 60

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93

Which of the following does not promote platelet activation and/or aggregation?

prostacyclin

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94

The end product of the coagulation cascade is

cross-linked fibrin

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95

Antibiotic drugs act against

bacteria

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96

The body's specific immune response is mediated by

antibodies

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97

Which of the following chemicals stimulate pain receptors?

bradykinins

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98

During a primary immune response; which antibody level is increased?

IgM

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99

IgG

Secondary Immune Response Can cross placenta Responsible for resistance against viruses, bacteria, & bacterial toxins

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100

IgA

External (grandular) Secretions

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