NSCI 2101 Exam 2

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Thalamus

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Neuroscience

I lowk fell off so the exam 1 flashcards are way better (those are missing one lecture, these are missing three atm,) but I'll have my shit together by the next midterm (trust)

164 Terms

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Thalamus

Region of the brain that relays most senses and motor information to the brain

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Thalamic Adhesion

Structure that separates the halves of the thalamus

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Specific Nuclei

Nuclei in the thalamus that relay a certain type of somatosensory information to a certain brain area.

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Non-Specific Nuclei

Nuclei that create barriers in and around the thalamus

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Internal Medullary Lamina

Sheet of axons from the intralaminar thalamic nuclei that separate the regions of the thalamus

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Thalamic Reticular Nucleus

Shell of neurons that inhibits communication from the thalamic nuclei to the cerebral cortex

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Association Nuclei

Nuclei in the thalamus that relay multiple types of somatosensory information to association areas in the brain

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Thalamic Dorsomedial Nucleus

Association area of the thalamus that relays information to the prefrontal cortex

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Thalamic Pulvinar Nucleus

Association area of the thalamus that relays information to the parietal

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Allocortex

Inner cerebral cortex

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Neocortex

Characteristic layered structure of the outer cerebral cortex

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Layer I

Outermost layer of the neocortex

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Layer II/III

Layer of the neocortex that

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Layer IV

Layer of the neocortex that projects to layers II and III

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Layer V

Layer of the neocortex that projects to the brainstem

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Layer VI

Layer of the neocortex that projects to the thalamus

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Primary Motor Cortex

Cortex that controls movement

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Primary Sensory Cortex

Cortex receiving information

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from specific thalamic relay nuclei

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Association Cortex

Region of the cortex that synthesizes and respond to information from multiple different regions of the cerebral cortex

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Cerebral Commissures

Tracts that cross the midline of the brain

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Corpus Callosum

Commissure between cerebral hemispheres

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Anterior Commissure

Commissure between temporal lobes

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Hypothalamus

Limbic structure that provides information to the pituitary gland

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Pituitary Gland

Structure that controls the glands of the autonomic nervous system

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Hippocampus

Limbic structure in the temporal lobes involved in declarative memory

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Amygdala

Limbic structure involved in conditioned fear responses

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Fornix

Limbic structure that connects the hypothalamus and hippocampus

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Basal Ganglia

Nuclei across the midbrain and forebrain with roles in motor function and motivation

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Striatum

Basal ganglia in the telencephalon consisting of the caudate nucleus

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Internal Capsule

Gray matter between the caudate nucleus and putamen

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Globus Pallidus

Basal ganglia in the telencephalon medial to the putamen

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Subthalamic Nucleus

Basal ganglia in the diencephalon ventral to the the thalamus

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Skeletal Muscle Cranial Nerves

Cranial nerves that exclusively provide nerves to muscles

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Extraocular Muscle Nerves

Skeletal muscle cranial nerves that control eye movement

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Oculomotor Nerve

Extraocular muscle nerve that controls the inferior rectus

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Abducens Nerve

Extraocular muscle nerve that controls the lateral oblique of the eye.

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Trochlear Nerve

Extraocular muscle nerve that controls the superior oblique of the eye

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Spinal Accessory Nerve

Muscle nerve for the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius

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Hypoglossal Nerve

Muscle nerve for the tongue

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Special Sense Cranial Nerves

Cranial nerves that exclusively enables the senses of smell, sight, hearing, and balance

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Olfactory Nerve

Specific sensory nerve for smell

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Olfactory Bulb

Messenger between the olfactory nerve and cortex

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Optic Nerve

Specific sensory nerve for sight

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Vestibulocochlear Nerve

Specific sensory nerve for hearing and balance

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Trigeminal Nerve

Nerve that controls chewing muscle and interprets general sense

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Temporalis

Upper chewing muscle

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Masseter

Lower chewing muscle

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Mixed Cranial Nerves

Cranial nerves that provide neurons to skeletal muscles and interpret general sensation and taste

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Facial Nerve

Nerve that controls facial muscles and interprets taste in the anterior tongue

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Facial Autonomic Ganglia

Ganglia of glands that control tears

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Glossopharyngeal Nerve

Nerve that controls the pharynx

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Glossopharyngeal Autonomic Ganglia

Ganglia of gland that controls salvation

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Vagus Nerve

Nerve that controls throat muscles

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Carotid Sinus

Swelling in the internal carotid artery that detects blood pressure

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Carotid Body

Tissue in the internal carotid artery that detects blood oxygenation

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Aortic Arch

Area of the heart that detects blood pressure and blood oxygenation

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Somatosensory System

System that detects general sensation

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Afferent Neurons

Neurons that carry sensory information

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Efferent Neurons

Neurons that carry motor information

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Dorsal Roots

Roots of spinal nerves that contain afferent axons

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Ventral Roots

Roots of spinal nerves that contain efferent axons

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Somatosensory Primary Afferent Neurons

Neurons that innervate sensing tissue

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Sensory Receptors

Specific sensors at the peripheral end of a neuron

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Dermatomes

Afferent axons in the spine

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Mechanoreceptors

Receptors that detect mechanical force

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Touch Receptors

Encapsulated mechanoreceptors distributed throughout the skin

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Pacinian Corpuscles

Touch receptors for vibration

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Two-Point Discrimination

Process of sensing multiple objects on the skin

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Proprioceptors

Mechanoreceptors in and around muscles

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Muscle Spindles

Organs that sense muscle length and tension

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Golgi Tendons

Organs that sense muscle load

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Piezo2

Receptor protein found in mechanoreceptor neurons

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Knee-Jerk Reflex

Reflex response to a muscle being stretched

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Flexor-Withdrawal reflex

Muscular response to pain in the skin

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Spinocerebellar Tract

Tract that carries proprioceptive information to the ipsilateral cerebellum

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Trigeminothalamic Tract

Tract that carries facial sensation from the trigeminal ganglion to the cerebral cortex

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Spinothalamic Tract

Tract that carries pain information from the ventral lateral funiculus of the spine to the contralateral cerebral cortex

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Dorsal Column Tract

Tract that carries touch information from root ganglia of the spine to the contralateral cerebral cortex

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Medial Lemniscus

Rostral portion of the dorsal column

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Fasciculus Cuneatus

Bundle of nerves that carry axons from the upper body to a dorsal column nucleus

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Cuneate Nucleus

Lateral dorsal column nucleus

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Fasciculus Gracilis

Bundle of nerves that carry axons from the lower body to a dorsal column nucleus

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Gracile Nucleus

Medial dorsal column nucleus

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Somatotopic Organization

Map of the body within the central nervous system

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Sensory Decussation

Point where sensory information crosses the midline

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Thalamic Ventral Posterior Lateral Nucleus

Synapse point of the spinothalamic tract and dorsal column

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Thalamic Ventral Posterior Medial Nucleus

Synapse point of the trigeminothalamic tract

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Primary Sensory Cortex

Postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe

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Limbic Cortex

Area that pain and itch information is projected to for avoidance

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Pain Neurons

Thin primary afferent axons

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Nociceptors

Pain receptors with free nerve endings and a high threshold potential

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Mechanical Nociceptors

Nociceptors triggered by force

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Heat Nociceptors

Nociceptors triggered at 45° C

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TRPV1

Sensory receptor for heat and capsaicin

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Capsaicin

Chemical in peppers that trigger nociceptors

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Cold Nociceptors

Nociceptors triggered at 0° C

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Polymodal Nociceptors

Nociceptors with multiple types of protein receptors for pain

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Acute Pain

Pain that goes away after pain stimulus is removed

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Persistent Pain

Pain that occurs during the healing process

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