EOC Biology Vocab

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405 Terms

1

bio-

life

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2

hetero-

different

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3

homo-, homeo-

same, alike

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4

Monomer

1 unit

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5

Polymer

Many units

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6

Carbohydrate Function

Quick energy

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7

Carbohydrate Monomer

Monosaccharide (sugar)

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8

Carbohydrate Polymer

Polysaccharide (bread, cellulose or chitin)

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9

Carbohydrate Elements

C1H2O1 (1:2:1 ratio)

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10

Carbohydrate Shape

Ring or Circle

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11

Carbohydrate Examples

Sugar, pasta, bread, glucose, cellulose, starch, glycogen, chitin

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12

Lipid Function

Stored energy

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13

Lipid Monomer

Fatty Acid/Glycerol

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14

Lipid Polymer

Lipids

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15

Lipid Elements

CHO

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16

Lipid Shape

Line

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17

Lipid Examples

Butter, oil, waxes, hormones (testosterone or estrogen)

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18

Phospholipid

Bilayer cell membrane

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19

Peptide

Protein

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20

Protein Function

Repairs & Hormones

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21

Protein Monomer

Amino Acid

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22

Protein Polymer

Protein

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23

Protein Elements

CHON

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24

Protein Examples

Meat, beans, amino acids and enzymes

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25

Proteins in the Human Body

Muscles

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26

Enzyme

Speeds up

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27

Enzyme Structure & Function

Lock & Key Model

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28

Denatured

Enzyme does not work

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29

Catalyst

Decrease activation energy

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30

Nucleic Acid Function

Genetic Information

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31

Nucleic Acid Monomer

Nucleotide

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32

Nucleic Acid Polymer

DNA

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33

Nucleic Acid Elements

CHONP

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34

Nucleic Acid Shape

Double Helix

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35

Nucleic Acid Examples

DNA & RNA

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36

RNA

Single stranded

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37

rungs of DNA ladder

bases

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38

hydrogen bonds

hold base pairs together

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39

sides of DNA ladder

alternating phosphates and sugars

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40

bases A, G, C, T

DNA

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41

bases A, G, C, U

RNA

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42

RNA shape

single stranded

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43

A pairs with

T

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44

C pairs with

G

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45

RNA

ribonucleic acid

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46

sugar in DNA

deoxyribose

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47

sugar in RNA

ribose

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48

protein

final product

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49

synthesis

to make or create

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50

mutations

change in DNA sequence

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51

reproduction

produce offspring

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52

cell division

mitosis & meiosis

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53

binary fission

cell duplicates (bacteria/prokaryotic)

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54

mitosis

identical cells (my TOE!)

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55

meiosis

sex cells (ME... how I am made!)

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56

replicate

copy

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57

replication

DNA to DNA

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58

transcription

DNA to RNA

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59

translation

RNA to protein

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60

site of protein synthesis

ribosomes

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61

mRNA

carries the message

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62

tRNA

transfer amino acids

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63

synthesis of proteins

DNA to mRNA to tRNA

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64

codon

three base pairs to code for an amino acid

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65

heredity

passing of traits

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66

crossing over

meiosis

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67

nondisjunction

chromosomes fail to separate

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68

insertion

extra base is added

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69

deletion

base is removed

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70

substitutions

base is replaced

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71

frameshift mutation

moves the message (insertion or deletion)

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72

environmental factors

mutaguns (radiation, chemicals, or infectious agents)

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73

biological traits

specific characteristic

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74

successive generations

inherited traits

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75

sexual reproduction

two organisms make a new organism

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76

asexual reproduction

single parentprokaryotic pro = NO nucleus

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77

bacteria cells

prokaryotic

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eukaryotic

U = YOUR cells have a nucleus

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79

uni-

one

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80

multi-

many

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81

lys-

to break down

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82

lytic

"lyt" is active and busts

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83

lysogenic

s = sleeping/dorment

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84

nucleus

brain, DNA

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85

cell membrane

phospholipid bilayer, "bouncer of the cell", selectively permeable

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86

bacteria cell wall

peptidoglycan

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87

plant cell wall

cellulose

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88

found in all cells

cell membrane

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89

virus

non-living, cell wall, protein capsule

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90

bacteria

living

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91

vaccines

viruses

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92

antibiotics

bacteria

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93

-ase

enzymes

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94

semi-

half or partly

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95

co-

together

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96

organelles

specialized structures

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97

ribosome

"rib" is protein

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98

golgi apparatus

"post office" packages and sorts proteins with vesicles

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99

smooth ER

lipids "smooth like butter"

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rough ER

proteins "rough like ribs" (ribs = ribosomes)

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