Bi 127 Kryger Lecture Exam 2

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181 Terms

1

host

any organism that harbors another organism

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2

Symbiosis

relationship in which two species live closely together

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3

Mutualism

symbiosis in which both organisms benefit

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4

Commensalism

symbiosis that is beneficial to one organism, and the other organism is not affected.

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5

parasitism

symbiosis that is beneficial to one organism and harmful to the other.

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6

host-parasite relationship

any infectious disease is what kind of relationship?

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7

parasite

the microbe, the organism that benefits in a host-parasite relationship

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8

pathogen

a parasite that causes disease in its host

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9

disease

outcome of fight between parasite and host

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10

parasites

when a disease occurs in the host, who won the fight?

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11

hosts

when an organism infects a host, but causes no disease, who won the fight?

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12

colonization

microbe is present and possibly multiplying at an epithelial surface, but the effect on the host in negligible

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13

infection

multiplication of the microbes in the host, but no substantial effect on the host

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14

disease (sequence of conditions)

microbe is present and multiplying with clear adverse effects on the host

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15

pathogenicity

ability to cause disease

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16

an organism's pathogenicity depends on it's ability to: (3 things)

invade the host, multiply in the host, avoid being damaged by host defenses

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17

Frank pathogens (aka. True pathogens or Primary pathogens)

frankly, they cause disease! in normal healthy hosts.

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18

opportunistic pathogens

not considered pathogenic in normal healthy person, only when opportunity arises in certain hosts

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19

predisposing factors that allow opportunistic pathogens to cause disease (3 things)

host is immunocompromised or immunosuppressed, microbes establish in part of the body that isn't natural to them, or normal flora is disrupted.

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20

immunocompromised

disease causes immune system to weaken

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21

immunosuppression

medication prevents immune system to weaken

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22

nonpathogen

microbes that do not cause disease

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23

virulence

intensity of disease produced by pathogen, or the degree of pathogenicity

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24

the virulence of a microbe is determined by it's ability to: 2 things

establish itself in a host, and cause damage

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25

highly virulent

produce intense infection with significant amount of disease

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26

low virulence

less significant effects on host

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27

Example of Highly Virulent Pathogen

rabies virus

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28

rabies causes what symptoms?

severe neurologic symptoms or death

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29

Example of Low Virulent Pathogen

cold virus

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30

avirulent

unable to cause disease, aka nonpathogenic

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31

other terms for normal flora

indigenous flora and microbiota

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32

normal flora

all microbes that live on and within a healthy human body

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33

there organisms are colonizing the host, and not typically associated with disease

normal flora

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34

How does colonization differ from infection?

colonization occurs at epithelial surfaces of body, and infection means organisms have entered the body

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35

resident flora

Permanent residents of the healthy human body

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36

transient flora

temporary residents that are present only under specific conditions

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37

transient flora are acquired from where?

external environment

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38

transient flora are attracted to what?

warm and moist body areas

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39

what are reasons that transient flora are only temporary? (4)

washed away, unable to compete with resident flora, unable to survive with changes in pH, flushed away by body secretions

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40

body sites with normal flora (not specific, but generally)

areas with more exposure to the outer world

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41

types of body sites lacking normal flora

fluids and internal tissues and organs

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42

sources of normal flora

birth canal, contact with people, food, air and objects in the environment

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43

benefits of normal flora

helps immune system become stronger

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44

nutritional benefit of normal flora, and how they help

vitamin k and b12 produced by intestinal bacteria. they compact feces, preventing diarrhea

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45

how does microbial antagonism prevent pathogens from colonizing?

by taking up nutrients, oxygen and space

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46

immunostimulation

immune system activation

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47

how does immunostimulation benefit the immune system?

flora provide a constant source of antigens and irritants to stimulate with immune system

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48

hygiene hypothesis

Studies have shown that germ-free mice have a weakened immune system

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49

pathology

the study of the structural and functional manifestations of disease

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50

pathogenesis

the steps or mechanisms involved in the development of a disease

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51

steps in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases (not detailed)

entry, attachment, multiplication, invasion, evasion, damage

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52

Virulence

degree of pathogenicity

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53

virulence factors

structural or physiological characteristics that help organisms cause disease

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54

general types of virulence factors

adhesion, exoenzymes, toxins, and protective mechanisms against host defenses

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55

adhesion

the process in which the microbes gain a stable foothold at the portal of entry

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56

ahdesins

proteins found on fimbriae and capsules, involved in adhesion

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viral spikes

act as adhesion factors

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58

adhesins enable a microbe to do what?

colonize

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59

exoenzymes created where?

inside the cell, then move to the outside

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60

exoenzymes

enzymes secreted by microbes that invade tissues, inflict damage on them, and escape host defenses

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61

examples of exoenzymes

end in -ase

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mucinase

breaks down protective coating on mucous membranes

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63

mucinex is the medication, mucinase is the...

enzyme

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64

coagulase

clots plasma, forming a plasmin clot around the bacterium to protect it from phagocytes, antibodies and other host defenses.

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streptokinase and staphylokinase

dissolve clots, which allow the pathogen to escape

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66

-kinesis, -kinetic

movement

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hyaluranase

breaks down hyaluronic acid to enable the pathogen to spread through connective tissues

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68

hyaluronic acid "aka"

tissue cement

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69

collagenase

Breaks down collagen, the principle fiber in connective tissue, so that pathogen can spread further

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70

hemolysins

lyse red blood cells and breakdown hemoglobin to release iron

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necrotyzing enzymes do what?

destroy tissues

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72

toxins

poisons that microbes produce to kill host cells or disrupt host processes

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73

two major types of toxins

endotoxins and exotoxins

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74

endotoxin

an integral part of the gram-negative cell wall; it causes adverse physiological effects in the host

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75

endotoxin is part of what?

lipopolysaccharide

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76

lipopolysaccharide

part of the outer membrane of gram-negative cell walls that is released when bacteria are killed

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77

shock

very low blood pressure, therefore not enough blood flow to other organs, therefore some organs shut down due to lack of blood

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endotoxin does what?

activates clotting factors and complement in the host, causing endotoxic shock

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Symptoms of endotoxic shock

low blood pressure, fever, ad Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

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80

disseminated intravascular coagulation

clotting in all the wrong places, causing hemorrhaging

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81

exotoxins are produced and released by what?

the pathogen

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82

neurotoxin

acts on nervous system

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83

enterotoxin

acts on GI tract

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leukociden

acts on leukocytes (white blood cell) host defenses

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85

cytotoxin

acts on cells

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86

exotoxins are categorized based on what?

their targets

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87

exotoxin disease associations

infections and intoxications

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88

infections (when compared to intoxications)

the pathogen has infected the body and releases it's enzymes.

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89

toxins spread from the site of infection to cause what?

disease

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90

intoxications

diseases resulting from ingestion or absorption of toxins. no infection is involved.

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91

Antiphagocytic factors

Protect bacteria from being engulfed and ingested by phagocytes (host defense cells)

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92

some bacteria produce ____ to destroy WBCs.

leukocidins

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93

some bacteria secrete ___, which makes it difficult for a phagocyte to engulf them.

capsules

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94

capsule

thick glycocalyx

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95

some bacteria are ______(5 words) after ingestion

adapted for survival inside phagocytes

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96

survival inside phagocytes has special significance because...

it provides a place for the microbes to hide, grow, and be spread throughout the body

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97

Signs of disease definition

objective evidence of a disease. testable/measurable.

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98

symptoms of disease definition

subjective evidence of a disease. feelings perceived only by the patient

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99

syndrome

a combination of signs and symptoms that occur together and are indicative of a particular disease or abnormal condition

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100

acute disease

rapid onset, short duration

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