ANATOMY UNIT 1 EXAM

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Anatomy

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Tags and Description

intro and terminology, cell, tissues and integument, bones, joints

101 Terms

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Anatomy

the study of the human body

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Gross Anatomy

examines structures that can be seen with unaided eye

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Microanatomy

studies structures that can only be seen with aid of a microscope

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Surface anatomy

studies surface marking of body

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regional anatomy

based on regions or divisions of the body and emphasizing the relations between various structures

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systemic anatomy

study of the body's structure by systems

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developmental anatomy

study of the structural changes that occur in cells, tissues, organs, and the human body from fertilization to adulthood

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clinical anatomy

the application of anatomy to patient care

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physiology

classified by organ or organ system being studied

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The chemical/molecular level

atoms are the smallest chemical units. Essential atoms for life include C, H, N, O, P, S and Ca. Molecules are a group of atoms working together.

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The Cellular Level

cells are a group of atoms, molecules, and organelles working together; muscle cell, nerve cells, and epithelial cells

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The Tissue Level

Tissues are a group of similar cells working together. Four basic types of tissues: epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous

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The Organ Level

an organ is a group of similar cells working together. cardiac muscle tissue and connective tissue form wall of heart.

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The system level

organs interact in organ systems: Heart, blood, and blood vessels form cardiovascular system.

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The Organism level

Humans

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What is homeostasis?

maintain balance = functioning healthy

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How does negative feedback work?

Maintain homeostasis

  • when a change in status of a regulated variable is detected, a series of events is triggered to return variable to its normal value

    • each regulated variable has a set point or an established base line

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How does positive feedback work?

Away from homeostasis

  • less common than negative feedback loops; effector activity increases and reinforces initial stimulus, shuts off when conditions return to the normal range

    • childbirth and blood clotting

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Which organ systems help maintain temperature?

nerves, cardiovascular, integument, skeletal muscle

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Which organ system help protect?

lymphatic - immune cells

integument - hair, skin, nails

respiratory - sneeze, cough, cilia

skeletal muscle - internal organs

urinary - can potentially pee out wastes

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Which organ system helps you move?

skeletal muscle

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Example of negative feedback loop

control of body temp

  • stimulus - body temp decreases below normal range

  • receptor - receptors in brain cells detect change in temp

  • control center - brain cells receive info and determine body temp is below range

  • response - nerve cell activate skeletal muscle cells to start shivering , producing heat

    • in homestatic range - as body temp returns to normal, feedback stops shivering of skeletal muscles

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example of positive feedback loop

blood clotting

  • stimulus - injury occurs to blood vessel

  • receptor - blood vessel damage is detected by receptors on platelets

  • control center - activated platelets release chemicals that attract and activate more platelets (effect amplifies by positive feedback)

  • response - platelets seal blood vessels

    • end point reached - once vessel is sealed, platelet activity decreases

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anatomical position

common frame of reference from which all body parts and regions are described

  • Body is standing upright; feet are shoulder width apart, with upper limbs at sides of trunk & head & palms facing forward

  • Body is always referred to as if it were in anatomical position

    • "Right" and "left" refers to sides of body being described, not our own

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male in anatomical position

penis is in its erect position, it lies against the abdomen

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dorsal body cavity

largely located on posterior side of the body; subdivided into two cavities

  • Cranial activity - within skull, protects brain

  • Vertebral (spinal) cavity - within vertebral column. protect spinal cord

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ventral body cavity

separated into two division by diaphragm

  • Thoracic cavity (superior to diaphragm) -

    • pleural cavities (each surround either left or right lung)

    • mediastinum (between pleural cavities, houses heart, great vessels = pulmonary trunk and aorta, trachea and esophagus)

    • pericardial cavity (within mediastinum, within serous membrane that surrounds heart)

  • Abdominopelvic cavity (inferior to diaphragm) -

    • superior abdominal cavity = spans from diaphragm to bony pelvis

    • pelvic cavity = area within bony pelvis

    • contains organs from several systems = digestive, lymphatic, reproductive, and urinary

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what lines each body cavity?

pleural cavities --→ pleural membranes

pericardial cavity --→ pericardial membranes

abdominal cavity --→ peritoneal membranes

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pleural membranes

outer parietal pleura - follow contours of thoracic wall

inner visceral pleura - runs along surface of lungs

thin space enclosed by pleural membranes forms pleural cavities

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pericardial membranes

outer parietal pericardium - separates heart from mediastinum

inner visceral pericardium

space created by pericardial membrane forms pericardial cavity

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peritoneal membranes

surrounds some of abdominal organs

outer parietal peritoneum

inner visceral peritoneum

space between these layers forms peritoneal cavity

does’t cover every organ; kidneys lie outside and behind parietal peritoneum and are called retroperitoneal organs

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11 Organ Systems

Muscular

Respiratory

Lymphatic

Digestive

Integument

Cardiovascular

Endocrine

Reproductive

Urinary

Nervous

Skeletal

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Integumentary System

  • Hair, skin, nails

  • protection = covers surface

  • Vitamin D synthesis starts in skin - keeps bones healthy

  • temp regulation = can sweat

  • skin: sensation (sensory cells)

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Skeletal System

  • joints, bones

  • protection = protect organs such as heart

  • movement with skeletal muscle

  • all blood cells are made in red bone marrow

  • stores Calcium - if not enough, get it from bones

  • passageway for nerves = vertebral foramina (openings for nerves to go through)

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Muscular system

  • skeletal muscles

  • protection = protect organs = skeletal muscle

  • temp regulation = skeletal muscle = can shiver = releasing heat

  • controls openings = smooth & skeletal muscle

  • movement with bones = skeletal muscle

  • movement of food stuff is smooth muscle

  • store glycogen in skeletal muscle

  • skeletal muscle pump = helps to return blood back to heart

  • cardiac muscle = muscle (24/7)

  • skeletal muscle helps to maintain posture

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Nervous system

  • brain, spinal cord, nerves

  • communication using nerves

  • sensation

  • regulates movement = need a nerve to contract muscle

  • memory and learning

  • emotions

  • Hypothalmus = regulates lots including temp

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Endocrine system

  • pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, testes, ovaries

  • communication using hormones

  • regulates organ function such as insulin to release to absorb glucose

  • metabolism = using ATP

  • emotions

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Cardiovascular system

  • blood vessels, heart

  • heart is pump

  • transport = carry gases, nutrients, wastes

  • temp regulation = can dump heat at vessels (make them bigger)

  • acid base regulation due to carrying CO2 - loves water

  • blood pressure regulation = make bigger/smaller vessels

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Lymphatic system

  • tonsils, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, lymphatic vessels

  • water balance = returns fluid lost back into circulation

  • protection due to lots of immune cells

  • part of digestive system = help to absorb fats

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Respiratory system

  • nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs

  • communication via vocal cords = speak when exhaling (air exits when speaking)

  • acid-base balance = can exhale CO2

  • gas exchange = bring in O2, exhale CO2; humans breathe due to CO2 being sensed in CNS

  • protection = can sneeze, cough, have cilia in trachea

  • lungs produce an enzyme

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Digestive system

  • mouth, salivary glands, esophagus, liver, stomach, gallbladder, pancreas, large and small intestine

  • breaking down food, absorbing nutrients

  • water balance = can absorb water

  • ion balance

  • acid-base balance due to H+

  • huge in immunity = gut is biggest immune system

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Urinary system

  • kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

  • acid-base = can pee out H+

  • water balance = can pee out or keep water

  • releases a hormone that leads to calcium absorption and red blood cell production

  • protection = can potentially pee out wastes

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Reproductive system

  • Male - prostate gland, ductus deferens, testis, penis

  • Women - mammary glands, uterine tube, ovary, uterus, vagina

  • produces and transports sperm/eggs

  • secretes hormones

  • sexual function

  • women - site of fetal development, fetal nourishment, child birth and lactation

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what types of substances can pass through the plasma membrane without help?

hydrophobic substances: lipid soluble stuff

all gases can easily cross

water

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What factors are important for a substance to be permeable across the membrane?

size, electrical charge, molecular shape, and lipid solubility

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Apoptosis

programmed cell death; it is unintentional/planned; happens in healthy tissues and cells (such as skin cells); important for the normal parts of cell aging

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Active Transport

movement of a substance against its concentration gradient via a protein pump. symporter, or antiporter

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Passive Transport

do not require expenditure of cellular energy substances move down their concentration gradient

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Simple diffusion

small and nonpolar molecules move unassisted between phospholipid molecules of the plasma membrane; no transport protein required

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facilitated difussion

ions and small polar molecules are assisted across the plasma membrane by a transport protein

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osmosis

the movement of water across the cell membrane, towards higher solute concentration - where the party is

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Exocytosis

granules or droplets are released from the cell; such as proteins, hormones, and other chemical messengers

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Endocytosis

active transport using ATP; materials move into a cell in a vesicle formed from the plasma membrane - pinocytosis, phagocytosis, receptor mediated endocytosis

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Pinocytosis

endosomes “drink” extracellular fluid

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Phagocytosis

cell “eating”; engulf large objects in phagosomes - bring in pathogen

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Receptor mediated endocytosis

brings in things like vitamins, antibiotics, low density lipoproteins (bad cholesterol) into cells

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Where is cytoplasm located?

cytosol + organelles inside a cell

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cytosol

intracellular fluid = surrounds the organelles

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Ribosomes

build polypeptides during protein synthesis

free ribosomes - in cytoplasm

fixed ribosomes - attached to ER

the central location for the production of ribosomes is the nucleolus

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Endoplasmic Reticulum

Smooth ER

  • no ribosomes attached

  • involved in the production lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, and detox of drugs

  • located bear cell periphery

  • lots in liver

Rough ER

  • surface covered with ribosomes

  • active in protein and glycoprotein synthesis

  • located near nucleus

  • lots in pancreas - insulin and plasma cells

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Golgi apparatus

  • UPS

  • packages macromolecules (protein and lipids) into vesicles after their synthesis and before they make their way to their destination

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Mitochondria

  • takes chemical energy from food (glucose)

  • produces energy molecule ATP

  • muscle cells and heart cells tend to have lots of mitochondria due to needing lots of energy to function

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mitosis

cell division: single cell --→ two identical daughter cells

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase

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Lysosome

clean up inside cells

  • break down large molecules

  • attack bacteria = part of immune system

  • recycle damaged organelles

  • eject wastes by exocytosis

  • smaller than peroxisome

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autolysis

self-destruction of damaged cells by lysozomes

unintentional

occurs in response to injury or infection

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peroxisome

use oxygen for catalytically detoxify and break down fatty acids

detoxifies toxic substances such as alcohol - lots in liver

bigger than lysosomes

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centriole

form spindle apparatus during cell division, are bundles of microtubules (organize them)

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Microfilaments

thin filaments composed of the protein actin (long; located near edge of cell)

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intermediate filaments

mid-sized between microfilaments and thick filaments = durable = composed of protein collagen and strengthen cell and maintain shape; stabilize organelles and cell position

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microtubules

large, hollow tubes of tubulin protein (tube-like)

strengthen cell and anchor organlles

change cell shape

move vesicles within cell = especially important in neurons for communication (malfunction --→ dementia/alzheimer’s)

centrioles, cilia, and flagella = also made of microtubules

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cilia

small hair-like extensions that beat rhythmically back and forth

formed of microtubules

move fluid across the cell surface

important in trachea to remove debris and pathogens

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flagellum

tail-like projection (microtubules) that protrudes from the cell body and functions in locomotion

only found in sperm

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microvilli

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