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Cognition

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331 Terms

1

Cognition

Mental actions/ processes of acquiring knowledge & understanding, through thought, experience & senses

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2

Patient HM

Hippocampi removed, destroyed the ability to form new memories

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3

Introspectionism

Examination of one's conscious thoughts & feelings. Doesn't help w unconscious thoughts. Claims often untestable/ unattainable. Ex. claim that my head hurts more than yours cant be tested

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4

Wund & Titchener

Concluded only way to study thoughts was through meticulously trained introspection

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5

Behaviorist Movement/ Behaviorism

Concerned w how behavior changes in response to diff stimuli . rewards/punishments. Behaviorists sought to avoid mentalistic terms (terms for processes/ representations of mind)

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6

Transcendental Method (Kant)

determine underlying causes that lead to observed effects

Begin w observable facts & work backwards

Asks how observations come about & what must be underlying cause that led to these effects

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7

Watson

Behaviorist focused on baby behaviour. Conscious experience subjective, unreliable & unverifiable. Not necessary to refer to psych processes to understand behaviour

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8

Edward Tolman

Argued that learning involved acquisition of knowledge. Researched rats' use of cognitive maps. 10 days in maze, no food, roaming (learning map). 11th day, food added, rats immediately found food bc of cog map

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9

Skinner

Behaviorist, developed theory of operant conditioning by training rats & pigeons. learning of voluntary behaviours and their consequences to guide goal directed behaviour. Theoretical constructs are meaningful to extent they can be observed

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10

Chomsky

Developmental theorist, argued for creativity of language. Believed language innate, we understand & produce sentences we've never encountered before. Creativity demanded theorizing

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11

Broadbent

Use comp sci language as model for cognition

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12

Response Time (RT)

Time (ms) for a person to respond to an event

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13

Cognitive Neuroscience

Understanding a person's mental functioning through the study of the brain & nervous system

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14

Clinical Neuropsychology

Study of brain functions using damage/illness disruptions as a data source

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15

Neuroimaging Techniques

Non-invasive methods to examine structure/activation within living brain

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16

Prefrontal Cortex

The cortex of the frontal lobe. Planning of complex & novel behaviors (brain's executive functions)

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17

Hindbrain

Connects brain to spinal cord. Controls life functions

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18

Cerebellum

Controls coordination of body movements & balance, sound discrimination, spatial reasoning & coordinated sensory input

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19

Midbrain

Coordinates movements & relays info from ears to forebrain for processing & interpretation

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20

Forebrain

Contains cortex, frontal, parietal, occipital & temporal lobes

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21

Hypothalamus

Control of motivated behaviours (eating, drinking & sexual activity)

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22

Thalamus

Relay & integration center for sensory info

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23

Amygdala

Almond-shaped, in limbic system. Emotion & evaluation of stimuli

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24

Hippocampus

Long-term memory & spatial memory

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25

Cortex

Outermost surface of brain

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26

Convolutions

Gyri & sulci that increase surface area of brain

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27

Longitudinal Fissure

Deepest groove, separates cerebral hemispheres

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28

Central Fissure

Separates frontal & parietal lobes

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29

Lateral Fissure

Separates frontal & temporal lobes (A.K.A Sylvian fissure)

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30

Cerebral Hemisphere

2 Sides of forebrain (left & right)

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31

Frontal Lobes

In front of Central Sulcus Fissure & above lateral fissure. Prefrontal cortex & primary motor projection area

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32

Parietal Lobes

Behind central fissure. Primary sensory projection & areas for control of attention

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33

Occipital Lobes

Rearmost lobe. Primary visual projection area

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34

Temporal Lobes

Under lateral fissure. Primary auditory projection area, Wernicke's area & subcortically, amygdala & hippocampus

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35

Subcortical Structures

Pieces of brain under cortex, Limbic system, thalamus & hypothalamus

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36

Limbic System

Amygdala, hippocampus & parts of thalamus. Controls emotional behaviour, & motivation. Role in learning & memory

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37

Commissure

Fibers that connect & send info between 2 cerebral hemispheres

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38

Corpus Callosum

Largest commissure

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39

Lesion

Area of brain tissue damage

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40

Neuroimaging Techniques

Non-invasive methods for studying structure/activation of living brain areas

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41

CT Scan

X-rays to make precise 3D images of brain anatomy

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42

PET Scan

Determines glucose usage in specific areas of brain at a moment of time

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43

MRI Scan

Magnetic fields create a detailed 3D representation of brain tissue

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44

fMRI Scan

Measures oxygen use in specific area of brain at moment in time, using magnetic fields

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45

EEG

Recording voltage at scalp that reflect activity in brain underneath

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46

Event-Related-Potentials (ERP)

Changes in EEG voltage before, during & after stimulus. Measured & averaged over many trials

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47

Fusiform Face Area

Brain area specialized for perception of faces

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48

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulations (TMS)

Strong magnetic impulses cause temporary disruption in brain region under scalp

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49

Localization of Function

Determining job performed by specific region of brain

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50

Primary Motor Projection Area

Rear of frontal lobe, send signals to lower portions of brains & spinal cord, results in muscle movement

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51

Primary Sensory Projection Area

1ary arrival point for info from eyes, ears & sense organs

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52

Contralateral Control

Left brain side controls right body, right side of brain controls left body

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53

Association Cortex

Portion of cortex outside of motor & sensory projection areas

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54

Apraxia

Struggle in organizing/initiating voluntary action caused by brain damage

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55

Agnosia

Inability to identify objects/features

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56

Unilateral Neglect Syndrome

Ignore all inputs from one side of space. Ex. only eat food from one side of plate, read blouse as "blo"

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57

Aphasia

Disruption of language capacities caused by brain damage

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58

Neuron

Cell in nervous system

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59

Glial cells

support, nourish & provide insulation for neurons, most common cell type in CNS. Ensures all neurons are functioning properly & contributing to larger whole

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Cell Body

Contains nucleus & metabolic machinery of cell

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Dendrites

Receives signal

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Axon

Transmits signal to other neurons

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63

Neurotransmitter

Chemicals released by neurons to stimulate other neurons

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64

Synapse

Connection between neurons

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65

Presynaptic Membrane

Releases neurotransmitters into gap between neurons

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66

Postsynaptic Membrane

Receives neurotransmitters from gap to continue transmitting signal

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Threshold

Activity level where neuron fires

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68

Action Potential

Change in electrical potential of neuron. Trigger further chem signal to other neurons

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69

Myelin Sheath

Tissue formed by glial cells that insulate axons, prevent loss of signal. Gaps between myelin allows signal to jump, increases transmission speed

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70

All-or-None Law

Action potential either goes to completion or doesnt happen. Action potential strength determined by frequency, not size

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71

Coding

1 type of info represents diff type of info. Ex. Neurons represent ideas/thoughts

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72

Cornea

Transparent tissue, begins focusing process

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73

Lens

final focusing of light on retina, turns view upside down & reverse (corrected by brain)

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74

Retina

Light-sensitive tissue at back of eye, Begins translation & processing of light to neural impulses

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75

Photoreceptors

Translate physical light stim into neural signal relayed to brain. Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) gives nutrients to photoreceptor layer for survival

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76

2 kinds of photoreceptors:

Rods & Cones

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77

Rods

Low light intensity, night vision. No color & poor visual acuity. Concentrated around fovea, none in fovea. Useful in peripheral vision. 125 million. Visual sensitivity & night vision

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78

Cones

High light intensity, day vision. Color vision & good visual acuity. Concentrated in fovea. Useful in central/concentrated vision. 6 million. Visual acuity & color vision

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79

Acuity

Ability to see fine detail

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80

Fovea

smaller receptive field in center of retina, highest acuity

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81

Bipolar Cells

Type of neuron in eye, relay input from photoreceptors into output to ganglion cells

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82

Ganglion Cells

Type of neuron in eye, receive input from bipolar cells. Axons gather, form optic nerve, carry info to LGN

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83

Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN)

Located at end of optic tract in thalamus; 1st destination for visual info from eyes

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84

Lateral Inhibition

Cell pattern that inhibits neighbouring cells when stimulated. Edge cells only inhibited by one side, so they're more activated, causing edge enhancement.

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85

Edge Enhancement

Neurons in visual system give enhanced response to edges/surfaces

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86

Mach Band

Illusion where region slightly darker if next to bright region & region slightly brighter if next to dark region. Caused by lateral inhibition, contributes to edge enhancement

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87

Single-Cell Recording

Technique for recording moment-by-moment activation level of individual neuron in healthy brain

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88

Receptive Field

Portion of visual field to which visual system cell responds. FIring rate changes if appropriately shaped stim in appropriate position

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89

Center-Surround Cells

Neuron in visual system w donut-shaped receptive field . Stim in middle has one effect on cell, stim in surrounding has opposite effect

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90

Area VI

Site on occipital lobe where LGN axons 1st reach cerebral cortex. Location where info about visual world 1st reaches brain ( for 1 neural pathway)

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91

Parallel Processing

Many steps at same time

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92

Serial Processing

1 step at a time (in series)

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93

What System

Visual Cortex to temporal lobe, what processing (object recognition)

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94

Where System

VIsual Cortex to parietal lobe, where processing (object spatial & movement)

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95

Binding Problem

Reuniting multiple elements of scene that were dealt with by diff brain systems

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96

Neural Synchrony

Neurons in diff brain areas fire at same time. Diff brain areas firing neurons in response to same stim

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97

Conjunction Errors

Error where person correctly perceives present features but misperceives how features are joined. Ex. red circle & green square seen as red square & green circle

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98

Necker Cube

Ambiguous shape, 2D shape seen as 2 possible 3D cubes

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99

Reversible (Ambiguous) Figure

Drawings that can be perceived in 1+ ways

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100

Figure/Ground Organization

Determining central object (figure) vs background (ground)

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