CV diseases and disorders of the skin

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133 Terms

1

dermatology

is the branch of medical science that studies and treats the skin and its disorders and diseases.

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2

dermotologist

If physician who treats skin disorders and diseases

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3

Esthetician should not ________ disorders and diseases of the skin.

diagnose

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4

Lesions

structural changes in tissues caused by damage or injury. any mark, wound, or abnormality is describes as a such.

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5

what are the 3 types of lesions?

primary, secondary, tertiary

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6

sometimes a tertiary lesions is also called?

vascular lesion

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7

vascular lesion involve the _____ and _______ system.

blood

circulatory

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8

primary lesions

in the initial stages of development or change.

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9

primary lesions are characterized by

flat, nonpalpable changes in skin color such as macules or patches, or an elevation formed by fluid in a cavity, such as vesicles, bullae, or pustules.

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10

what are the primary lesions?

Macule, Papule, Patch, Plaque, Wheal, Nodule, Tumor, Vesicle, Bulla, Pustule, Cyst

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11

Macule

Flat spot or discoloration on the skin.

Examples: freckle, red spot left after a pimple has healed, "age spot"

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12

Bulla

Large blister containing a watery fluid; similar to a vesicle but larger.

Examples: contact dermatitis, large second degree burns, bulbous impetigo, pemphigus.

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13

does a bulla require medical referral?

yes a bulla does.

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14

Cyst/Tubercle

Closed, abnormally developed sac that contains pus, semifluid, or morbid matter, above or below the skin.

Examples:cyst(severe acne tubercle), lipoma, erythema, nodosum

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15

which one can be drain and which one cannot be drained? a cyst or a tubercle?

a cyst can and tubercle cannot

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16

does a cyst/tubercle require medical referral?

yes a cyst/tubercle does

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17

nodule

a solid bump larger than 1 cm that can be easily felt.

Examples: swollen lymph node, rheumatoid nodules

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18

does a nodule require medical referral?

yes a nodule does

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19

papule

a small skin elevation that contains no fluid, but may develop pus.

Examples: acne, warts, elevated nevi

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20

does a papule require medical referral?

no a papule doesn't

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21

pustule

Raised, inflamed papule with a white or yellow center containing pus in the top of the lesion referred to as the "head" of the pimple.

Examples: acne, impetigo, folliculitis

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22

tumor

Abnormal mass varying in size, shape, and color. not always cancerous.

Example: cancer

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23

does a tumor require medical referral?

yes a tumor does

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24

How does a tumor form?

When cells grow and divide rapidly/ (uncontrollably) and they have nowhere to go so they pile on top of each other

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25

Vesicle

Small blister or sac containing clear fluid, lying within or just beneath the epidermis.

Examples: poison ivy, poison oak

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26

does a vesicle require medical referral and if so under what circumstances?

yes a vesicle does if the cause is unknown and over the counter products don't work.

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27

wheal

An itchy, swollen lesion caused by a blow, insect bite, skin allergy reaction, or stings (of a nettle).

Examples: hives, mosquitos bites

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28

does a wheal require medical referral and if so under what circumstance?

typically no a wheal doesn't, as is usually resolves on it own, but a referral should be considered when it last more then 3 days.

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29

urticaria

allergic reaction of the skin characterized by the eruption of pale red, elevated patches called wheals or hives

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30

secondary lesions

piles of materials on the skin surface, such as a crust or scab or by depressions in the skin surface such as an ulcer.

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31

secondary lesions are characterized by

crust, scab, depression on the skin

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32

what are the secondary lesions?

Crust, excoriation, fissure, keloid, scale, scar, ulcer

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33

does second lesion require medical referral?

they may require medical a referral.

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34

Crust

Dead cells that form over a wound or blemish while it is healing; an accumulation of sebum and pus, sometimes mixed with epidermal material.

Examples: scab, sore

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35

Excoriation

Skin sore or abrasion produced by scratching or scraping.

Example: damaged nail cuticle from biting

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36

fissure

A crack in the skin that penetrates the dermis.

Examples: severely cracked and/or chapped hands or lips.

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37

keloid

Thick scar resulting from excessive growth of fibrous tissue

Example: piercing keloid

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38

Example: piercing keloid

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39

scale

Thin, dry, or oily plate of epidermal flakes

Example:dandruff, psoriasis

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40

scar (cicatrix)

Slightly raised or depressed area of the skin that forms as a result of the healing process related to an injury or lesion.

Examples: post-operative repair

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41

if you have a scar can hair grow back in said location of the scar?

no hair can't grow back.

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42

ulcer

open sore or lesion of the skin or mucous membrane accompanied by loss of skin depth and possibly weeping of fluids or pus.

Examples: chicken pox, herpes

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43

Skin cancer is caused by

UV damage to DNA

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44

skin cancer forms when

Cells begin to divide rapidly and unevenly

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45

Actinc keratosis

A pink or flesh colored precancerous lesion that feels sharp or rough and is a result of skin damage.

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46

mole

Small, brownish spot or blemish on the skin, ranging in color from pale tan to brown or bluish black.

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47

what are the 3 main types of skin cancer?

basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma

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48

basal cell carcinoma

Most common and least severe type of skin cancer; often appear by light or pearly nodules. Characteristics include sores, reddish patches, or a smooth growth with an elevated border.

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49

squamous cell carcinoma

more serious that basal cell carcinoma, characterized by scaly red papules or nodules. appear as open sores or crusty areas; can grow and spears in the body.

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50

malignant melanoma

Most serious form of skin cancer as it can spears quickly (metastasize); often characterized by black or dark brown patches on the skin that may appear uneven in texture, jagged, or raised. may have surface crust or bleed.

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51

What are the ABCDE's of skin cancer detection?

asymmetry, border, color, diameter, evolving

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52

acne

an inflammatory skin disorder of the sebaceous glands, medically known as acne Simplex or acne vulgaris.

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53

How is acne characterized?

Is characterized by excess sebum production. This excess oil and dead skin cells can plug pores creating comedones, pustles, etc

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54

Propionibacterium acnes (p. acne)

Technical term for acne bacteria

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55

Anaerobic

Process that does not require oxygen

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56

pilosebaceous unit

is the term for the entire follicle that includes the hair shaft, sebaceous gland, and sebaceous duct or canal to the surface.

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57

Sebaceous filaments

Mainly solidified impactions of oil without the cell matter

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58

comedo

A noninflamed buildup of cells, sebum, and other debris inside follicles.

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59

open comedo

blackhead

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60

closed comedo

whitehead

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61

Milia

small epidermal cysts that appear as firm white papules. are whitish, pearl masses of sebum and dead cells under the skin with no visible opening and often mistakenly called whiteheads.

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62

retention hyperkeratosis

Hereditary factor in which dead skin cells build up and do not shed from the follicles as they do on normal skin.

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63

Sebaceous hyperplasia

Benign lesions are frequently seen in oilier areas of the face. An overgrowth of the sebaceous gland, they appear similar to open comedones; often doughnut-shaped, with an indentation of sebaceous material in the center.

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64

seborrhea

severe oiliness of the skin; an abnormal secretion from the sebaceous glands

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65

How many grades of acne are there?

4

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66

Grade 1 acne

Minor breakouts, mostly open comedones, some closed comedones, and a few papules

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67

Grade 2 Acne

many closed comedones, more open comedones and occasional papules and pustules

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68

Grade 3 acne

red and inflamed, many comedones, papules, and pustules

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69

Grade 4 acne

cystic acne. cysts with comedones, papules, pustules and inflammation are present. scar formation from tissue damage is common

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70

Comedogenic

Ingredients can block follicles, which causes cell buildup, resulting in comedones.

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71

can antibiotics be used orally or topically?

both

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72

polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

condition where both ovaries have many cysts due to a hormone imbalance

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73

vasodilation

widening of blood vessels. can make rosacea worse.

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74

varicose veins

are vascularity that our abnormally dilated and twisted it means that can occur anywhere in the body. often on the legs.

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75

hyperpigmentation

overproduction of pigment

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76

hypopigmentation

lack (absence) of pigment, resulting in light or white splotches.

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77

Melasma

Also referred to as pregnancy mask; skin condition that is triggered by hormones that causes darker pigmentation in areas such as on the upper lip and around the eyes and cheeks.

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78

lentigo

is a flat, pigmented area similar to a freckle. small, yellow-brown spot.

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79

Ephelids

also known as freckles, are tiny round or oval pigmented areas of skin on areas exposed to the sun. Also referred to as macules, they are small flat colored spots on the skin.

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80

nevus

Also known as a birthmark, is a malformation of the skin from abnormal pigmentation or dilated capillaries that is present at birth or appear shortly after birth.

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81

port-wine stain

a large, reddish-purple discoloration of the face or neck. a vascular type of nevus.

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82

Poikiloderma of Civatte

Is a skin condition caused by actinic bronzing (chronic sun exposure) to the sides of the face and neck.

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83

Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation

is darkened pigmentation due to an injury to the skin or the residual healing after an acne lesion has resolved. it is often deep red, purple, or brown in appearance.

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84

tan

results from exposure to the sun

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85

which one is less commonly seen, hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation?

hypopigmentation

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86

leukoderma

Loss of pigmentation leading to light, abnormal patches of depigmented skin

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87

Albanism

A rare genetic condition characterized by the lack of melanin pigment in the body including the skin, hair, and eyes

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88

vitiligo

Is it pigmentation disease characterized by white irregular patches of the skin that are totally lacking pigment. can worsen overtime and sunlight. a absence in melanocytes

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89

dermatitis

generalized inflammation of the skin

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90

contact dermatitis

An inflammation of the skin caused by having contact with certain chemicals or substances.

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91

Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD)

Caused by exposure to an direct skin contact with an allergen.

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92

Sensitization

the development of hypersensitivity due to repeated exposure to an allergen over time.

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93

atopic dermatitis

Chronic, relapsing form of dermatitis. Irritants and allergens trigger reactions that include dry, cracking skin.

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94

Example: eczema

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95

eczema

an inflammatory, painful itching disease of the skin, acute or chronic in nature with dry or moist lesions

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96

Irritant contact dermatitis

Abbreviated ICD; occurs when irritating substances temporarily damage the epidermis.

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97

Perioral dermatitis

Acne-like condition around the mouth. These are mainly small clusters of papules that could be caused by toothpaste or products used on the face.

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98

seborrheic dermatitis

form of eczema characterized by inflammation, dry or oily scaling or crusting, and/or itchiness

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99

stasis dermatitis

Caused by poor circulation in the lower legs that can create a chronic inflammatory state

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100

hypertrophy

Abnormal growth of/on the skin; many are benign, or harmless.

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