DHS: Dental Materials

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Amalgam

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1

Amalgam

Alloy of Mercury = Silver: Sn Copper: Cu Tin Zinc: Zn

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2

What metal in amalgam is a base metal and highly susceptible to corrosion in the mouth?

Silver

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3

Why is copper added to amalgam?

Reduce rate of corrosion in amalgam To make it last longer

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4

Tofflemire/Matrix Band Retainer

To maintain stability of matrix band during condensation of restorative material for class II preparation

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5

Wedge with Tofflemire used to

Create a tight contact and prevent an over hang

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6

In order to detect an overhang, visible on an xray, which in instrument in your cassette would you pick up?

Explorer (Shepards hook)

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7

Bonding agent is used to establish

micro-mechanical retention with tooth structure.

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8

Phosphoric acid etch is used to

create a roughened tooth structure in order to increase surface area for micro-mechanical retention.

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9

Enamel is ______________ mineralized and is the ___________________ tissue in the body.

96%, hardest

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10

Phosphoric acid etch is used for __________ secs and ______________ enamel.

15-20, demineralize.

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11

When enamel is etched is appears...

Frosty!

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12

What happens if we get etch on the dentin?

Destroy smear layer and dentinal tubules are now open.

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13

If dentinal tubules are open, what happens?

Pain

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14

Light cure products work by

Photo-initiators and cause chem reaction to polymerize.

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15

2 reasons for bonding failures

-Salivary contamination -Oil contamination (from prophy paste)

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16

Number one cause for bonding failure is....

Salivary contamination

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17

Rubber dam is used to

isolate the restorative field from the rest of the mouth.

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18

Sealants are

barriers that protect occlusal surface from bacterial assault.

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19

What is the best way to prep an occlusal surface for sealant placement?

Prophy jet or Cavi jet

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20

Steps for sealant placement

  1. Pumice/ prophy jet - Rinse isolate dry

  2. Etch - rinse dry

  3. Apply/ wick off excess

  4. Polymerize (light cure)

  5. Check retention/ occlusion

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21

Composites are

Esthetic restoration made with a bonding agent = micro- mechanical retention with tooth structure

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22

Composites are made from

silicates, quartz, glass = filled with tooth colored particles

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23

What are added to composites so they appear radiolucent on xrays?

Silicates, quartz, glass

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24

Barium and Strontium are added to composite resins for....

Radiopacity

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25

Handling characteristics, classification and clinical application of composites are dependent on...

Filler particle size.

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26

Microfill particles in composite = Midifill particles in composite = Nanofill = Blended all =

Nerds + Jelly beans + Sugar = Nanofilled micro-hybrid

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27

Liners are used

Seal dentinal tubules or Seal and medicate the pulp

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28

Calcium hydroxide is used to

Seal dentinal tubules medicate the exposed pulp horn Stimulate odontoblast to stimulate reparative dentin = NO RCT

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29

Zinc Oxide Eugenol (ZOE)

Liner Oil of clove = soothing to pulp Cannot use under a composite

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30

Resin-modified glass ionomer

Most popular liner used today bonding agent that has glass ionomer powder and releases Fluoride

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31

Bases

Insulate and protect the pulp

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32

Cements are

nonconductive and have compressive strength

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33

Liner only when

small dentinals are exposed = small cavity

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34

Base & Liner is used when

large cavity and pulp is exposed = pink no bleeding to insulate & reduce sensitivity

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35

Zinc phosphate is a _______________ ______________.

exothermic cement = generates heat. Mixed on glass slab

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36

Which of the following cements generates heat when mixed? A: Zinc Eugenol B: ZInc phosphate

B: Zinc phosphate

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37

Polycarboxylate cement must be mixed with.....

polyacrylic acid liquid

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38

Glass Ionomer cement

-Binds to dentin -Releases fluoride -Expands/contracts ike tooth structure -Can be used as a class V restorative material

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39

Resin cements

USed for esthetic situations

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40

Resin based glass ionomer

Hybrid cement = viscosity

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41

Zinc- Oxide Eugenol cement is used for

Temporary crowns, soothes pulps

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42

How do you clean zinc-oxide eugenol?

Orange solvant

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43

Elastomeric

Material with elastic properties = think elastoman = flexible

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44

2 Elastomeric materials

Water soluble = hydrophilic (loves H2O) Water insoluble = hydrophobic (hates H2O)

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45

Water soluble elastomerics

Hydrocolloids = Reversible (agar) Irreversible (alginate)

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46

Agar undergoes a reversible reaction is because undergoes a

physical reaction.

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47

Solidification by cold is called..

gelation

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48

Hydrocolloids Irreversible (alginate) undergoes change by a _______________ reaction.

Chemical

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49

Cold water _____________ sets alginate and warm water _______________ alginate set time.

slows, accelerates

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50

Syneresis means (alginate)

Loss of a solvent by a solute = to shrink = losing water to atmosphere

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51

Imbibition means (alginate)

Absorption of a solvent = to swell = taking on water

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52

Why do we aerate the alginate powder?

Because it is a fine powder

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53

Elastomeric insoluble

polyether rubber

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54

Which of the hydrophobic impression materials distorts when left in water?

Polyether rubber

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55

Gypsum

calcium sulfate dihydrate = 2 molecules of water

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56

How do we get alpha or beta calcium sulfate hemihydrate?

from calcium sulfate DIHYDRATE = heated and water extracted

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57

To use gypsum we need to ...

add the water back = expands as it sets!

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58

The more water we add to gypsum, the ______________ _________________.

greater expansion = lower compressive strength.

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59

Beta calcium sulfate hemihydrate gypsum is

Plaster = big expansion, particles further apart = takes a lot of water and is lower compressive strength

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60

Alpha calcium sulfate hemihydrate gypsum is

Stone = less water = less expansion and higher strength.

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61

Put in order the weaker to stronger gypsum products. Alpha STONE Beta PLASTER Alpha DIE STONE

Beta Plaster Alpha Stone Alpha Die Stone *** Think A id better than B ****

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62

Diestone contains

a chemical additive to make it stronger

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63

Diestone is used for

working models by lab techs

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64

What 2 agents can modify gypsum products?

Borax = slows it down (think burro = slow donkey) Potassium sulfate = speed up (think eating a banana will make you fast)

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65

A model base should be trimmed

perpendicular to the midline

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66

What is inlay wax?

Wax used by the lab tech to create the waxed patterns on models

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67

Waxes are

modified paraffins

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68

Utility was is used for..

cushion ortho brackets and appliances modify an impression tray to cushion edges

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69

Casting alloys

used to make inlays, onlays, creons, bridges

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70

Inlays fit

"in the tooth, in the cusp"

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71

Onlays fit

cover the cusps

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72

Casting alloys are categorized by

alloy composition = precious or non-precious metals

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73

Precious alloys are

noble metal = last a long time and resistant to tarnish and corrosion. Gold, platinum & palladium

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74

Non-precious alloys are

Base metals = tarnish & corrosion Nickel: 50% females have Nickel allergy

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75

Do not treatment plan for a PFM for a patient that has a metal allergy because

gingival tissue will never heal due to allergy

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76

How do we polish gold in the mouth?

Tin oxide = okay in mouth

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77

Why cant we polish gold in the mouth with rouge?

Because it is toxic

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78

T or F: Gold foil will always look like gold

True and will always be at the gumline or front of the mouth = have to hammer = 1st premolar to premolar.

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79

Implants are used because

they are biocompatible alloy of titanium

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80

Endosteal means

within bone

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81

Failure of implants is due to

No integration Inadequate bone Peri-implantitis (inflm around implant)

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82

Contraindications for implants

Inadequate bone Periodontal disease Uncontrolled diabetes Smoking Infection Bisphosphonates

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83

Bisphosphonates

increase bone density, but decrease vascularity = decrease healing potential.

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84

Can we use an electric toothbrush and air polisher on an implant crown?

YES

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85

Do we scale implant with a metal instrument?

No, never

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86

Pyrophosphates are

tarter control toothpastes = leading cause of dentinal sensitivity

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87

Triclosan

ACTIVE ingredient in gum care toothpaste = antiseptic

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88

Potassium nitrate Sodium Citrate Strontium Chloride are all ingredients found in what toothpaste?

Active ingredient in Antihypersensitivity Toothpastes

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89

Hydrogen peroxide Carbamide bicarbonate are active ingredients in which toothpastes?

Home bleaching pastes

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90

Sodium bicarbonate is the active ingredient in..

denture cleansers

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91

Thermoplastic polymer is used for

mouthguard fabrication

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92

Polymethylmethacrylate & Bis-acrylic resins are used for?

Temporary crown restorations

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93

Which dental tissue most look like enamel?

Porcelain

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94

Galvanism is

Generation of electrical current when dissimilar metals are in an acidic environment

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95

Irreversible hydrocolloid

alginate

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96

Tensile

capable of being stretched

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97

Ductility

Ability of material to undergo a change in shape of from without breaking

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98

Malleability

materials capacity to be shaped by force or pressure

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99

Compressive strength

the force a material can withstand before breaking

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100

Final mercury content on high copper amalgam restorations is

50 % or less

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