Practicum- Phylum Vocab

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Sessile

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116 Terms

1

Sessile

Organism that is permanently attached to a substrate, such as a rock.

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Choanocyte

Collar cells- the inner layer is composed of flagellated these cells

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3

Osculum

Upper opening of the body

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4

Spongin

Makes up most sponges skeleton- a soft protein.

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5

Spicule

Makes up the internal skeleton- small needle-shaped structure with one to six rays

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6

Filter Feeding

Filter their food out of the water

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Amoebocyte

Act as a circulatory device to transport nutrients from cell to cell & produces sex cells- egg and sperm- and spicules

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8

Gemmule

Like a spore and is resistant to drying out, freezing, or the lack of oxygen. Forms in freshwater sponges and when conditions are favorable, it gives rise to an adult sponge.

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Regeneration

If the cells of a sponge are separated, they are capable of reassembling and regenerating into a complete and functioning organism

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10

Hermaphrodite

Possess both male and female sex organs

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11

Cnidarians

Invertebrates existing as either a polyp or medusa, with tissue layers and radial symmetry. Phylum- tubular/bell-shaped animals that reside mainly in shallow coastal waters.

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Ctenophora

Phylum- Comb jellies- solitary, free-swimming marine invertebrates that are found primarily in warm waters

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Medusa

Among cnidarians, bell-shaped body form that is directed downward and contains much mesoglea

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14

Polyp

Among cnidarians, body form that is directed upward and contains much mesoglea; in anatomy: small, abnormal growth that arises from the epithelial lining

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Epidermis

In mammals, the outer, protective layer of the skin; in plants, tissue that covers roots, leaves, and stems of nonwoody organisms

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Gastrodermis

The inner tissue layer derived from endoderm

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Mesoglea

Transparent jellylike substance located between the endoderm and ectoderm of some sponges and cnidarians

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Gastrovascular Cavity

Blind digestive cavity in animals that have a sac body plan.

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Tentacle*

Parts of cnidarians that ring the mouth and reach out and grasp prey and discharge nematocysts

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20

Cnidocyte

Specialized stinging cells of a cnidarian; contain a toxin filled capsule called a nematocyst.

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21

Nematocyte

A capsule that contains a threadlike fiber, the release of which aids in the capture of prey.

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Nerve net

Diffuse, noncentralized arrangement of nerve cells cnidarians

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Colloblast

Sticky adhesive cells that most ctenophores use to capture their prey

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24

Bioluminescence

Ability to produce your own light

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25

Cephalization

Having a well-recognized anterior head with a brain and sensory receptors

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26

Planarian

Type of flatworms- free-living, that have muscles and excretory, reproductive, and digestive systems- they don’t have respiratory and circulatory systems. They capture food by wrapping around their prey, entangling it in slime, and pinning it down. Hermaphrodites. Reproduce both sexually and asexually.

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Pharynx

In vertebrates, common passageway for both food intake and air movement; located between the mouth and the esophagus.

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Flame Cell

Named because the beating of the cilia reminded early investigators of the flickering of a flame. A part of planarians excretory system.

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Eyespot

Light sensitive organs

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30

Hermaphrodite

Type of animal that has both male and female sex organs.

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31

Regeneration

If the cells of a sponge are separated, they are capable of reassembling and regenerating into a complete and functioning organism

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32

Tapeworms

One of the several classes of parasitic flatworms. As adults, they are endoparasites- internal parasites. Have a well-developed anterior region- the scolex- which has hooks for attachment to the intestinal wall of the host and suckers for feeding.

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Proglottids

Segment of a tapeworm that contains both male and female sex organs and becomes a bag of eggs

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34

Fluke

Endoparasites- internal parasites. One of the several classes of parasitic flatworms. At the anterior end, an oral sucker is surrounded by sensory papillae, and at least one other sucker used for attachment to the host. Most are hermaphroditic.

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35

Shistosomiasis

Illness caused by the blood fluke. The blood fluke occurs predominantly in the Middle East, Asia, and Africa. Adult flukes are small and may live for years in their human hosts.

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36

Roundworms

Invertebrates with nonsegmented cylindrical body covered by a cuticle that molts; some forms are free-living in water and soil, and many are parasitic.

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Cuticle

In plants, a waxy layer covering the epidermis of plants that protects the plant against water loss and disease-causing organisms. In animals, an outer covering that protects and supports the organism.

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38

Ascaris

an infection of most commonly parasites of humans and pigs. The symptoms of this infection depend upon the site and the stage of the infection

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39

Trichinosis

Infection caused by the round worm Trinchinella spiralis.

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40

Filarial worm

Causes an infection called elephantiasis by this roundworm, which utilizes the mosquito as an intermediate host. When a mosquito bites an infected person, it transports larvae to a new host.

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41

Pinworm

Another roundworm infection, which is more common in the US.

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42

Hookworm

Another roundworm infection, which is more common in the US, specifically the southern states.

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43

Rotifers

Microscopic invertebrates characterized by ciliated corona that when beating looks like a rotating wheel.

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44

Corona

A crown of cilia- looks like a spinning wheel when in motion, which serves as an organ of locomotion and directs food into the mouth.

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45

Molluscs

Invertebrates including squids, clams, snails, and chitons; characterized by a visceral mass, mantle, and a foot.

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46

Visceral Mass

Internal organs of an organism; typically includes components of the digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems (if present).

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Foot

Animal structure involved in locomotion

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48

Mantle

In molluscs, in extension of the body wall that covers the visceral mass and may secrete a shell.

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49

Radula

Rasping, tongue-like- an organ that bears many rows of teeth and s used to obtain food.

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50

Gastropod- ex. Conchs and snails

Type of Mollusc with a broad, flat foot for crawling (e.g., snails and slugs).

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51

Cephalopod- ex. Octopuses, squid

Meaning head-footed- Type of mollusc in which the head is prominent and the foot is modified to form two arms and several tentacles; includes squids, cuttlefish, octopuses, and nautiluses.

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52

Bivalve

Type of mollusc with a shell composed of two valves; includes clams, oysters, and scallops.

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53

Incurrent siphon

A posterior opening between the two valves which is used for filter feeding for food particles and water to enter.

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54

Excurrent siphon

A posterior opening used for waste products of digestion and respiration

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55

Arthropod

Invertebrates, with an exoskeleton and jointed appendages, such as crustaceans and insects

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56

Segmentation

Repetition of body units as seen in the earthworm

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57

Appendage

Allow for specialization of the body segments, which are basically hollow tubes moved by muscles. Typically, they are highly adapted for a particular function, such as food gathering, reproduction, and locomotion, and many of which are associated with sensory structures and used for tactile purposes.

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58

Exoskeleton

Composed of a chitin- a strong, flexible, nitrogenous polysaccharide- and serves many functions- protection, attachment for muscles, locomotion, and prevention of desiccation.

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59

Molting

Shedding the exoskeleton in order to grow larger

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60

Compound Eyes

Type of eye found in arthropods; it is composed of many independent visual units.

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61

Crustacean- subphylum Crustacea

Member of a group of aquatic arthropods that contains, among others, shrimps, crabs, crayfish, and lobsters.

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62

Insects- subphylum Uniramia

A numerous, diverse group, which is studied, called entomology. Their body is divided into a head, thorax, and an abdomen. The head usually has a pair of sensory antennae, a pair of compound eyes, and several simple eyes. Their mouths vary. The abdomen has internal organs. The thorax has three pairs of legs and zero to three pairs of wings.

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63

Metamorphosis

Change in shape that form that some animals, such as insects, undergo during development

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64

Arachnids

Group of arthropods that includes spiders and scorpions

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65

Annelid

The segmented worms, such as the earthworm and the clam worm

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66

Parapodia

Each of a number of paired muscular bristle-bearing appendages used in locomotion, sensation, or respiration.

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67

Segmentation

Repetition of body units as seen in the earthworm

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68

Hermaphrodite

Possess both male and female sex organs

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69

Nephridia

Plural of Nephridium- Segmentally arranged, paired excretory tubule of many invertebrates, as in the earthworm

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70

Leech

Blood-sucking annelid, usually found in fresh water, with a sucker at each end of a segmented body.

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71

Echinoderm

Invertebrates which are radially symmetrical such as sea stars, sea urchins, and sand dollars; characterized by radial symmetry and a water vascular system.

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72

Water-vascular system

Series of canals that takes water to the tube feet of an echinoderm, allowing them to expand.

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73

Tube feet

Small active tubular projections on the oral face of an echinoderm. Function in locomotion, feeding, and respiration.

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74

Cardiac stomach

The lower part of Echinoderm’s digestive system- Digests the tissue of captured prey while it is outside the body, transfers food to the pyloric stomach.

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75

Pyloric stomach

The upper part of Echinoderm’s digestive system- it secretes digestive enzymes into the mantle cavity of the bivalve. The enzymes digest the bivalves tissue.

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76

Hagfishes (class Myxini)

One of two groups of living jawless fishes. An ancient group of fish, which have a skull but lack the vertebrae found in the other classes of vertebrates. Molecular evidence suggests that these were once present in these fish, so they are traditionally classified with the vertebrates. Scavengers; feeding mainly on dead fish.

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77

Lampreys

One of two groups of living jawless fishes. They have a vertebral column; most are parasites which use their round mouth as a sucker to attach itself to another fish and tap into its circulatory system. It cannot take in water through its mouth- water moves in and out through the gills.

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78

External fertilization

The process by which fertilized eggs develop outside the female’s body- occurs in bony fish, many reptiles, some cartilaginous fish, most amphibians, two mammals, and all birds. Moisture keeps the gametes from drying out. Most common in amphibians and fish among vertebrates, and for invertebrates- benthic, sessile, or both (coral, sea anemones).

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79

Example of Chonrichthyes

Sharks, rays, and skates- they have skeletons of cartilage, not bone.

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80

Cartilage

Connective tissue in which the cells lie within lacunae embedded in a flexible, protein-aceous matrix.

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81

Lateral line

A series of pressure sensitive cells along both sides of the body that can sense pressure caused by nearby movement in the water.

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82

Ray-finned fishes (class Actinopterygii)

Group of bony fishes with fins supported by parallel bony rays connected by webs of thin tissue. They use paired fins to balance and propel the body, and they’re thin and supported by bony rays. Ex- cod, trout, salmon

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83

Bone

Connective tissue having protein fibers and a hard matrix of inorganic salts, notably calcium salts.

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84

Swim bladder

In ray-finned fishes- Regulates buoyancy by secreting gases into or absorbing gases from the bladder, they can change their density, allowing them to go up and down in the water.

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85

Lobe-finned fishes (class Sarcopterygii)

Type of fishes with limb-like fins; ancestors of the amphibians. They have a lung used for respiration, and fleshy appendages that can be adapted to land locomotion.

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86

2-chamber heart

The heart in fish- a loop with one ventricle and one atrium and gill capillaries and other capillaries.

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87

Metamorphosis

Change in shape that form that some animals, such as insects, undergo during development

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88

Gravid

Pregnant; carries eggs or young

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89

Tympanum

the ears in amphibians- used for picking up sound waves

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90

Larynx

Cartilaginous organ located between the pharynx and the trachea; in humans, contains the vocal cords; sometimes called the voice box.

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91

3-chamber heart

The heart in amphibians and most reptiles- one ventricle and two atriums and lung and skin capillaries and other capillaries.

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92

Amniotic egg

Egg that has an amnion, as seen during the development of reptiles (including birds) and mammals

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93

Amnion

Extraembryonic membrane of birds, reptiles, and mammals that forms an enclosing, fluid-filled sac

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94

Yolk sac

One of the extraembryonic membranes that, in shelled vertebrates, contains yolk for the nourishment of the embryo, and in placental mammals is the first site for blood cell formation.

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95

Chorion

Extraembryonic membrane functions for respiratory exchange in birds and reptiles; contributes to placenta formation in mammals

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96

Albumen

The white of the egg of certain animals, especially birds and reptiles, consists mostly of protein. Any of a class of simple, sulfur-containing, water-soluble proteins that coagulate when heated, occurring in egg white, milk, blood, and other animal and vegetable tissues and secretion.

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97

Internal fertilization

The process by which the male’s sperm passes into the female, and the female typically possesses leathery, flexible, shelled eggs.

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98

Keratin

The tough material that makes up the scales in most reptiles to protect them from injury and prevent them from losing water.

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99

Ectothermic

Body temperature that varies according to the environment temperature

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Feathers

Modified reptilian scales

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