Geography Exam 1

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Geography (definition)

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140 Terms

1

Geography (definition)

The study of the interaction of all physical and human phenomena at individual places and of how interactions among places form patterns and organize space.

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Physical geography

The study of the earth’s physical processes including how they work, how they affect humans, and are affected by humans.

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Human geography

The study of various aspects of human life that create the distinctive landscapes and regions of the world.

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What physical geographers study (sub-disciplines)

Geology, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Botany, Meteorology

Examples of physical geographers: Climatologists, geomorphologists, water resource specialists

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What human geographers study (sub-disciplines)

Anthropology, sociology, history, political science

Examples of Human Geographers: Cultural Geographers, Urban Geographers & Planners, Population Geographers, and Medical Geographers

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Spatial relationships

The way objects are arranged in relation to one another in geographic space

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Spatial analysis

An approach to geographic inquiry focusing on patterns and in the distribution of human actions, environmental processes and interactions among and between places or regions.

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8

Mapping

Maps help geographers understand phenomena and their interactions

Maps can display ENORMOUS amounts of information.

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9

Latitude (parallels)

Run east to west

Measure north to south

0° Latitude is the equator

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Longitude (meridians)

Run north to south

Measure east to west

0° Longitude is the prime meridian

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Equator

0° Latitude is the equator

Cuts the world in half with the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere

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The Tropics & other significant lines of latitude

Tropic of cancer (23.5 degrees N)

Tropic of capricorn (23.5 degrees S)

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Prime meridian

0° Longitude is the prime meridian

Cuts the world in half with the eastern hemisphere and western hemisphere

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14

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)

The time measured on the Earth's zero degree line of longitude, or meridian

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15

International date line

A boundary from which each calendar day starts

<p><span style="font-family: Google Sans, Roboto, arial, sans-serif; color: rgb(77, 81, 86)">A boundary from which each calendar day starts</span></p>
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16

Map projection

All map projections entail some distortion between the 3-D sphere and the 2-D image.

Distortions of size, shape and location

Conic, Cylindrical, Planar

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17

Conic

Good for mapping mid-latitude regions

Most common in our atlas

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18

Cylindrical

Used for navigation

Exaggerates areas at higher latitudes

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19

Planar

Embeddings of topological maps into the plane

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Ssmall scale mapping

Less detail, large denominator (1:1,000,000)

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Large scale mapping

More detail, small denominator (1:100,000)

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22

Thematic maps

Show the spatial distribution patterns of physical or cultural phenomena.

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23

Cartogram maps

A map in which some mapping variable other than acreage is used for scale.

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24

Cartographers

The “art” of map making

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25

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

A computer system that captures, stores, queries, analyzes, and displays geographic data.

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26

Remote sensing

Acquisition of data about the Earth surface from a satellite orbiting the planet.

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27

Lithosphere

Earth’s Crust and upper mantle

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28

Landform

Any natural formation of rock and dirt, found on Earth.

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29

Geomorphology

Study of landforms and processes that create them.

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Endogenic forces

Internal forces beneath or at Earth’s surface

Ex: Mountain building, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes

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Exogenic forces

External forces

Ex: Chemical, Erosion: water & wind, Transport

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Earth’s planetary structure

Inner core, outer core, mantle, crust

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Inner core

Solid

1/3 of Earth’s mass

Enormous pressure

Iron and nickel

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34

Outer core

Molten lava

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35

Minerals

Natural substances that compromise rocks.

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36

Distinct characteristics of minerals

Color

Luster

Specific Gravity

Hardness

Geometric shapes

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37

Rocks

Most rocks consist of several minerals

Lithosphere building material

Bedrock and outcrop

Types: Igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary rocks

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38

Bedrock

Is the solid rock that underlies loose surface material.

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39

Outcrop

Is a mass of exposed bedrock.

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40

Igneous rocks

Molten rock material that cools and solidifies

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Metamorphic rocks

A rock that has changed form due to enormous heat and pressure

“Parent Rock” could have been igneous, sedimentary, or another metamorphic rock

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42

Sedimentary rocks

Unconsolidated material that have been eroded and deposited, then compressed and cemented.

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43

Plate tectonics

Movement of rigid “plates” of rock over a weak layer in the upper mantle.

The study of large-scale movement and deformation of the earth’s outer layers.

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44

Theory of Continental drift

Continents and other landmasses have shifted their positions during Earth’s history

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45

Convergent boundaries

One plate boundary pushes up and over another. This is how the Himalayas formed, between India and Asia.

<p>One plate boundary pushes up and over another. This is how the Himalayas formed, between India and Asia.</p>
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46

Transform plate boundaries

Two plate boundaries shift against each other. The San Andreas fault and the Coastal range of California.

<p>Two plate boundaries shift against each other. The San Andreas fault and the Coastal range of California.</p>
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47

Divergent plate boundaries

Two plate boundaries pull apart from one another. The great rift valley of Africa or the red sea between Saudi Arabia and Africa.

<p>Two plate boundaries pull apart from one another. The great rift valley of Africa or the red sea between Saudi Arabia and Africa.</p>
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48

Convection in the Earth’s upper mantle

The reason for the force in the Continental Drift

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49

Volcanism

The rise of magma and its cooling at the Earth’s surface.

Includes the landforms formed by this process.

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50

Shield volcanoes

Gently sloping, dome shaped cone

Hawaii Islands

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Cinder volcanoes

Most common

Simple “construction”

Usually only one vent

Steep-sided cones

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Composite volcanoes

Large and Explosive

Multiple vents

Death and destruction…if in a populated place

Sometimes called Stratovolcanoes

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53

Plug (Lava) dome volcanoes

A mound that will form when lava piles up over a volcano’s vent instead of moving away

Mt. St. Helens

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54

Earthquakes

Evidence of present-day tectonic activity

Ground motions of Earth caused when accumulating tectonic stress is suddenly relieved

Seismic waves

Epicenter

Aftershocks

Richter scale

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55

Richter scale

Measurement of earthquakes

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56

Weathering

The process of wearing or being worn by long exposure to the atmosphere

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Mechanical weathering

Any way that rock is broken down into smaller pieces by mechanical (physical) processes

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Chemical weathering

Turns the rock into something “different”

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59

Karst landscapes

Underground erosion caused by water flow that dissolves passageways and carves large caverns in limestone

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Erosion

The movement of weathered material

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61

Mass wasting

The downslope movement of rock debris in response to gravity

Talus slope

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62

Mitigation

Actions that limit, stop or reverse adverse affects of human activities on the environment

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63

Fluvial geomorphology

Study of flowing water as a land-shaping process

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Stream Meandering

Stream erosion

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Floodplain

Nearly level surface at the valley bottom through which a river flows

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66

Glaciation

Thick layers of moving ice

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Terminal moraines

A moraine deposited at the point of furthest advance of a glacier or ice sheet

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Lateral moraines

Sharp-crested piles of glacially-transported rocks and debris that are dropped by the ice as it melts

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Medial moraines

Form where two tributary glaciers come together

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70

Glacial deposits

The settling of sediments left behind by a moving glacier

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Glacial cirque

An amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion

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72

How v-shaped valleys are formed

Typically caused by stream or river erosion

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How u-shaped valleys are formed

Formed through glacial erosion

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74

Wind erosion landscapes

A significant shaper of landforms especially in dry regions

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75

Loess plateau - China

Deposits of windblown material

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76

Sand dunes formation

Where this sediment is deposited when wind velocities are lower.

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77

Geographic Systems analysis

Geographic inquiry which views Earth as a set of interrelated environmental and human systems.

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78

Atmosphere

A thin layer of gases surrounding Earth, composed of nitrogen, oxygen and other gases

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79

Variances of solar energy based on 2 things

Intensity and Variation

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80

Intensity

Angle of incidence

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81

Variable

Season

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82

Degree of tilt on Earths axis

23 .5 °

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83

Angle of Incidence

The angle at which solar radiation strikes a particular place at any point in time

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84

Earths orbital position at Winter Solstice

Directly over the Tropic of Capricorn, which is located at 23.5

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Earths orbital position at Spring Equinox

Earth's 23.5° axis not tilting toward or away from the sun

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86

Earths orbital position at Summer Solstice

The sun's direct rays reach their northernmost position with respect to Earth's equator, along the Tropic of Cancer, at 23.5 degrees north latitude

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87

Earths orbital position at Fall Equinox

Perpendicular to the orbital plane at 23.5 degrees

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88

Climograph

A graphic representation of the relation of two climatic elements

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Wavelengths of solar radiation

Short and long wave

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90

Urban heat islands

Sun gives off short-wave radiation

Earth emits long-wave radiation

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91

Greenhouse gasses

Water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, methane

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Water vapor

H2O

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Carbon dioxide

CO2

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Ozone

O3

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Methane

CH4

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96

Air density in atmospheric pressure

Heavier closer to the surface

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97

The way wind blows around an area of high pressure

Blows away

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98

The way wind blows around an area of low pressure

Blows toward

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99

How the Coriolis effect affects global air movement

Deflection of wind above rotating Earth.

On a spinning planet, winds follow an indirect, curving path.

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100

How the ocean currents warm the air and are circulated across the globe

Travels north or south and cools, then returns

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